Cannabis Legalization on Missouri Ballot:

Two Paths from Which to Choose…Freedom, or Feudalism?

©Doreen Hannes

(((Look, I want to be very clear here. I don’t even use cannabis, because it IS illegal, and the seizure aspects are waaaay too high of a price to consider for something I would only rarely do if it were indeed legal….so I am not trying to get protections for my habit in position.)))

Over the course of the past few months I’ve been doing a fair amount of investigation on the issue of cannabis and various efforts to legalize the plant for the general benefit of humanity. Initially, I looked at the issue of legalizing cannabis as a simple matter of civil liberties with a massive pseudo criminal front propped up by drug court fees, seizure laws, probation and the expenses paid to the system in that, cheap prison labor and increased family court revenues due to foster care and custody issues…And yes, it also incidentally had benefits for people with serious medical issues.

Honestly, I have had a complete paradigm shift. Complete.

Not that the prison industry complex and costs to society associated with those issues are irrelevant, but there is a much larger, and much more evil truth about the control of cannabis that absolutely must become common knowledge. It’s particularly important that those who largely identify with conservative and Christian principles, or strong Constitutionalist ideologies become fully aware of the collusion between government and corporations to remove a beneficial plant from our access. Cannabis actually heals. And it restores life to people who are very ill. Hundreds of studies show this to be true, and also that cannabis is tremendously beneficial for our overall health.

The reason this has come to the forefront for many of us is that it is becoming increasingly difficult to hold to the idea that “Reefer Madness” has any basis in fact. It simply isn’t factual. Sometimes there are people that use cannabis that are just literally criminals and have no regard for their fellow man. These same criminals may also consume carrots, but the carrots are not the cause of their deficient characters. With or without cannabis, these people would be violent. Cannabis does not cause crime. Violent cartels exist because of cannabis being illegal. So in effect, the only violence that can truly be attributed to cannabis is state sanctioned violence through unjust laws. Simply put, the controls on this plant are the reason for violence associated with the plant or it’s distribution.

The tipping point on the truth around cannabis being put into the status of a Schedule One controlled substance (the Schedule One designation means it has NO medicinal value) has been achieved among the people. For those who have some qualms about whether or not this plant needs to be flatly legalized, please watch this video about Rick Simpson oil. This man has given people -as in freely given- cannabis oil, and they have been cured of all manners of disease including multiple types of cancer and terminal cancer. If you watch that video and still have any uncertainty left in you, watch this video, and forgive the one instance of yelling at the very beginning. The facts are that corporate interests paid to have cannabis categorized as a Schedule One controlled substance. Corporate interests, violent cartels, the prison industry and tyrannical seizure laws fattening the wallets of a few, have been the only beneficiaries of cannabis control.

Multitudes of people have died from being denied the best thing on earth to beat cancer. And the people in the corporations, the politicians that continue to be bought off from taking right action, and the pharmaceutical companies, are complicit in their deaths. Yes, I said complicit. The facts are in. Cannabis prohibition must end and will end very soon. Just look at this list of the plethora of studies that show the benefits of cannabis in treating human ailments. There are hundreds of studies on the effectiveness of cannabis, not just in treating symptoms of disease, but actually curing the disease in many instances. It can’t be covered up any longer. However, we do have some questions that we need to answer for ourselves as we move forward on cannabis.

The first question is whether or not we are happy with the current state of controlled and declining health and access to alternative/natural treatments? Currently, the FDA -who took 30 years to admit that vitamin C is helpful in thwarting the common cold- is in control of our food and our medicine. On average, FDA approved medications kill 100,000 people per year. Those are their own reports on the FDA’s website. The FDA has stated they are justified in exercising authority to control what we consume because the Almighty gave commands on dietary laws in Scripture. They think they have as much authority as the Creator of the Universe. Seriously. Check it out here. (page 26 of 30)The FDA also holds the position that “raw milk is inherently dangerous and should never be consumed by any one for any reason.” Never mind the fact that if that were a true statement, there would never have been a second generation of human beings.

Honestly, I could go on for a full-length book about the criminal behavior of the FDA in relation to our food and medicines, but I’ll restrain myself. Just watch network tv for one night, count up the recalls and suits being advertised along with all the new medications you should talk to your doctor about, then ask yourself if you think they are doing work that is truly beneficial for humanity. If you can truthfully say that you are pleased with the quality of our nutrition, not knowing whether or not you are consuming genetically modified organisms, and the health care system in this country, then you need do nothing. If you are not satisfied with the status quo of chronic pain, disease and debilitation, and lack of personal control, then it’s time to do things differently.

The next series of questions we must answer is what kind of business model “We the People” want to follow as we end prohibition on this plant? Do we want to stick with the controlled access, medical industrial cartel dialectic, where production, distribution, and access are licensed and heavily regulated, and keep fascism growing? Or do we want to seek free market enterprise and let everyone who is interested put their own money on the line and succeed or fail on their own merits? Have layers of bureaucrats proven themselves to be beneficial to our literal wellbeing? Do we think we personally should have the ability and choice to make decisions about what we consume? Or do we believe the bureaucrats, paper pushers and corporations have proven themselves to have a legitimate and beneficial hand in securing our health?

Once we’ve answered these questions to our satisfaction, then we must decide how we move forward on the issue of cannabis legalization and access. In Missouri, we will have two very different initiatives on the ballot in 2016 for a proposed Constitutional amendment.

Since I’m from the Show Me state, and these two initiatives are responsible for bringing me to the paradigm shift I mentioned above, I bring you “The Tale of Two Initiatives”. One is very short and flatly legalizes it. The other is 4 pages of small print and proposes to regulate cannabis within the Constitution of the state.

From that short overview, it is very likely that those who know me have already determined which initiative has won my support. But it’s necessary for everyone to make up their own minds about this, so the remainder of this rather lengthy article is going to focus on the nuts and bolts of these two initiatives. Other states have similar proposals in position.

Let’s deal with the short one first. This initiative, identified as 2016-013, was written by Mark Pedersen formerly of the Kansas City NORML group. Even many major proponents of legalizing cannabis have said it was too radical. Notably, the national level of the KC group that worked with Pedersen, NORML (the National Organization for Reform of Marijuana Laws) is reported to be the biggest opponent of this initiative. We’ll have to deal with the reasons behind NORML opposing this amendment in a subsequent article. For now, we’ll just look at the “radical” amendment first and talk about possible pros and cons related to it.

2016-013 is currently being circulated for the collection of signatures to get onto the 2016 November ballot. It proposes to remove cannabis from the controlled substances list. It doesn’t place limits on the amount one person may possess or grow. It also doesn’t have any age limits set within the confines of the proposed amendment to the Constitution. It secures the right of people to grow enough for their personal use and prevents extra regulatory controls on farmers and processors of all cannabis products, including all strains, cannabis sativa, cannabis indica, cannabis ruderalis, and crosses of these cannabis strains. It prohibits the mere presence of cannabis and cannabis products from serving as cause to charge with impaired driving. And I do admit that it does indeed seem radical on its face. But let’s examine the issues so we can make determinations with solid information.

First up, let’s look at the “radical” idea of not limiting the amount that an individual may grow. This is terrifically important. If you watched the Rick Simpson “Run From the Cure” video I linked earlier, you are aware that a single full treatment for cancer or serious health issues requires a pound of cannabis. The oil from the plant is extracted and a pound will render about 2 ounces of oil. It’s a lot of cannabis. What’s more, if a person has received chemo or radiation, they will need at least 2 full protocols of the cannabis oil to fully heal. It can take a lot of plants to get those amounts of cannabis. The street value of a single treatment amount bought by the ounce is about $4800.00 right now. If you can get the entire pound and buy it all at once you might be able to get a discount and get it as low as $3400. Is that too high of a price to cure cancer? Certainly not, but what if you don’t have $3400 to $4800? Does your ability to pay for a treatment make you worthy of having it? Conversely, does the inability to pay make you a less valuable human being? If there aren’t limits placed on the number of plants one may have, it opens the door for people to be better able to heal themselves and to take personal responsibility for their own well being.

Should Cannabis Be Legal?
Yes, completely.Yes, but only with strict regulation.Only when a doctor prescribes it.No. It is harmful.
VoteView ResultsPolldaddy.com

Next let’s look at the thing that really struck me personally about the 2016-013 initiative. There is no age limit set forth for possessing or using cannabis. I thought that was pretty over the top, and I told the people who contacted me about the initiative that it was my opinion that it needed an age limit. They made some pretty good arguments against it. One of those arguments was very basic from a freedom advocate’s point of view. The age of majority isn’t stipulated in the Bill of Rights. Also, it isn’t a static thing. It is 21 for some things and 18 for other things and it isn’t something that should be ensconced in our Constitution to secure a right. Even more importantly, in light of the healing potential of cannabis oil, would anyone with any compassion in them want to prohibit a parent faced with a seriously ill child from being able to help that child? I wouldn’t. It would be unconscionable to put anyone in that position, and instead run them through a bureaucratic and medical industrial complex maze to do what every parent must do to be right in the eyes of their Creator and provide for the child help in a time of trouble. Also, it is emphatically evident that parents have a duty to protect their children from ingesting things that they shouldn’t be ingesting. If you are going to have cannabis in the house, you have to be responsible and not allow your children to use it on their own. In other words, BE A PARENT!

Next let’s take an actual look at the issue of THC in the system and driving under the influence. THC being present in the system is simply not at all equal to impairment. Yes, THC is the psychoactive chemical in cannabis, but its presence within a person’s system doesn’t mean that the person is impaired. It isn’t like blood alcohol content, in that a person could have high levels of THC in their system, but still not be impaired. If someone is using cannabis to treat themselves for health reasons, THC will be high, but they are not likely to be impaired if they have been following a protocol for any length of time at all. There is a lot of science behind this fact, and it is important to look at the science and make logical decisions about THC as opposed to emotional decisions predicated on a faulty basis. In no way shape or form am I saying that you cannot be impaired by cannabis consumption. You certainly can be impaired. That impairment would be evident in a motor skills test that was video taped and witnessed by at least two witnesses. Whether people like it or not, that would be evidence of impairment, but THC levels are not a credible assessment of impairment.

Here is an excerpt from a paper on this issue:

A study using coordination testing showed inevitable failure on field sobriety testing if blood THC levels were 25 to 30 ng/ml. But, many failed testing at 90 and 150 minutes after smoking even though plasma concentrations were rather low. The researchers had the foresight to conclude that “establishing a clear relation between THC plasma concentrations and clinical impairment will be much more difficult than for alcohol”. This is because alcohol and THC are chemically different and are metabolized differently inside the body.

Now we are ready to take a look at the “Show Me Cannabis” (aka Mo NORML) initiative proposition.

First off, this initiative, 2016-009, isn’t being circulated for signatures yet because the proponents of the initiative have reportedly “gone back to the drawing board”. However, it is available from the Missouri Secretary of State’s office at this link. I have put in a couple of emails asking for a conversation with the gentleman heading up this initiative and have received no replies, so I cannot relate any responses to questions I have regarding this initiative.

In the first sentence, this initiative is providing for regulatory control of cannabis to Missourians over the age of 21. It stipulates that regulations are to be promulgated for many purposes. Here are a few of those. Promulgate regulations to allow for state licensed producers, retailers, and distributors of cannabis. It states that revenue generated by cannabis will be used to fund police and firefighter pensions and retirement plans as well as elementary and secondary schools. That the revenue will be used to prevent: the establishment of cartels, under age 21 use, and to prevent advertising cannabis to those under the age of 21. It allows for households to grow up to six plants, have up to 16 ounces of dried cannabis, or 20 ounces of liquid cannabis. It proposes to expunge nonviolent cannabis convictions. Also to require a person to get a license to purchase, sell, manufacture, deliver or process cannabis. It requires the labeling of the THC content on all cannabis products, and provides for limitation on the level of THC allowed in cannabis that may be sold. It provides for a 25% excise tax on the first “fair market sale” of all marijuana….And more. Lots more, actually.

Let’s start with the 25% excise tax on the first “fair market sale” of any cannabis. Well, right there we have a problem. “Fair market sale” is defined in this proposed amendment as “means with respect to the sale of a product, a sale in which the purchase price of the product is not less than the price that a willing seller would accept and a willing buyer would pay in the open market and in competition with other similar products.” Hmmm.

If this is absolutely constrained to the FINAL sale of the product to the consumer of the product, that means that if you are buying from a “licensed retail establishment” that you will be paying approximately 33% in taxes to the State. (The 25% excise and the 8% sales tax) It doesn’t state that it is on the final sale though. It says it is on the “first sale in an open market”. So…does that mean when the grower sells to someone for either distribution or manufacturing that the grower has to collect the 25% for the state? Here is the definition of an excise tax. (It’s rather complex, and this article is already very long, so please read the link) It certainly sounds to me as though the tax is something that is supposed to be collected on the sale by the grower after he pays the license fee to be able to sell the product at all.

He must then increase the down line cost of the product by adding an additional 25% cost to the next in line. Then when you get to the retail portion, the cost of goods is further increased by the state sales tax. So, let’s say the licensed grower sells an ounce for $100 for his labor and upkeep, and has to collect $125 from the licensed wholesaler/distributor or manufacturer to whom he sells. The distributor or wholesaler then has to mark up the product by whatever percentage will allow him to pay his license fee and make a living wage to the retailer, who then must again mark up what he sells the product for in order to cover his own living wage. Presume you do typical mark up of 30% for the distributor/wholesaler (more for the manufacturer as there are additional processes involved) as the distributor/wholesaler is supposed to be moving volumes. Now you’re looking at $125 + $37.50= $162.50. Then the retailer usually has to double as they have more insurance liability by having people come in and out of their location, and they have to deal with displays and such. Now you’re looking at $325 per ounce before the typical 8% sales tax ,which is another $26, so the cannabis consumer pays $351 per ounce and the state makes $51 plus licensing fees every step of the way. Mind you, $100 an ounce as a starting price is terrifically low. But is this really going to help out the average person a whole lot? I’m all for the State making money on the retail, but my rule of thumb is what did Yahweh ask for a tithe? Only 10%. Why does the State deserve more than 2 and half times what He requests? Maybe I’m the only one who thinks this way…I kind of doubt it though.

Someone will say, “But you can grow up to six plants, and that surely is enough for a household!” Well, let’s look at the six plant limit. Below you’ll find a little scenario that is not at all unreasonable. Just ask anyone who has ever gardened.

So you decide you like to garden and you’ll grow your own cannabis and therefore bring down the cost of making cannabis available for your household. You order seeds and spend $90 for ten seeds. Really. That’s a pretty good price, too. So you very carefully germinate your seeds and 9 out of ten germinate. Now you have to throw three down the toilet or you’ll be over your six plant limit. You carefully place these in small pots. They begin to put on leaves and now you have your six plants! You’re all legal and looking forward to excellent yields…Then you come home from work and two of your seedlings wilted on you. You mist them and hope they’ll recover. Well, they don’t. So now you have four plants and no more seeds to germinate. You figure that’s all fine because the advertisement said this was a high yielding variety and you can only have 16 ounces of dried product anyway. So when they get to be about 15 inches tall you put them outside into the best area of your backyard for good sun, but not too much, and you check on them daily. You patiently wait for September when you should be able to harvest. In the end of June, you and your family go away for the weekend and when you come home, one of your plants has simply disappeared. And the Japanese beetles picked that weekend to hatch out and eat your remaining plants up like crazy. So you set about making a protective enclosure for them and that involves shade cloth and posts and a gate and it takes you the rest of the week to get that done. You only have a couple of hours to work on it every night because this endeavor isn’t one that actually pays the bills. At this point you’re thinking it’s probably a lot easier to just buy the stuff, but you’re stubborn and keep after it until September. They’re looking okay, but the yields in the advertisement don’t look attainable…Harvest time comes and you get a total of three ounces from your three plants. Probably because the Japanese beetles hit right at flowering time…So you have three ounces after 6 months of tending and you’re scratching your head to figure out if it’s even worth trying again.

Imagine going through that when you are ever so hopeful that you will get a good yield on a strain that will help your child with epilepsy, or a parent with debilitating arthritis, diabetes, or cancer. Six plants? At what stage of maturity? And what happens if you are over that level and get caught by Code Enforcers or the police? Well, we can’t answer that other than to say the legislature will authorize fines and penalties for going over the “Household Exemption” level. It does limit it to up to $1000 or a year in jail. Does that sound good? Does it count toward the retirement funds and school funds prescribed in this amendment proposal? The proposed amendment says “revenue”. Do the enforcement fines and penalties count toward revenue?

Let’s consider the issue of using the amendment to aid law enforcement and firefighters pensions and retirements, and helping out the public school system with additional funds. While I am pro-education and pro-firefighter and all for peace officers, don’t we already spend a fair amount of tax money on these things? Are these funds being managed well? Isn’t this what various lottery proceeds are supposed to enhance as well? If we throw more money at them, do the actual students and the actual public servants ever really benefit? With the seizure laws that have been so onerously used, I have a really hard time thinking the public needs to give more money to police so that they can get more money by citing more people for regulatory violations as promoted in this proposed amendment.

There are some good things that are done in this proposed amendment. One is expunging of nonviolent cannabis offenses. But when you compare these two initiatives that, on their face, are supposed to legalize cannabis in Missouri, one flatly does so, and the other creates a plethora of bureaucracies and potential regulatory abuses along with continued legal system fines and penalties.

Let me be very clear here, while there is no part of me that wants to tolerate minors “getting stoned” or people driving while impaired, it is apparent that the ability to control those things still exist within our legal construct. Minors do NOT have the same rights as adults. Nor do they have the same responsibilities. People who drive while they are chemically/physically impaired by cannabis to the point that they cannot properly react to the hazards on the road are not being responsible, and should be charged with driving under the influence. Video evidence should be sufficient for the enforcement of driving while impaired.

Please check out all the links I posted in this incredibly long article. It’s very important that when we have amendments to consider on the ballot that we are wise in our decisions about them. We cannot be reactive and responsible at the same time. Study it out and be certain of your decisions.

I encourage you to read these amendments again, and if you have concerns, please feel free to voice them and let’s see if we the people can positively, and responsibly, disentangle ourselves from the corporately controlled nanny state on this issue.

http://www.truthfarmer.com

 
 

*Ernest Small and David Marcus

*This paper was considerably improved by criticism provided by A. McElroy.

“Hemp” refers primarily to Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), although the term has been applied to dozens of species representing at least 22 genera, often prominent fiber crops. For examples, Manila hemp (abaca) is Musa textilis Née, sisal hemp is Agave sisalina Perrine, and sunn hemp is Crotolaria juncea L. Especially confusing is the phrase “Indian hemp,” which has been used both for narcotic Asian land races of C. sativa (so-called C. indica Lamarck of India) and Apocynum cannabinum L., which was used by North American Indians as a fiber plant. Cannabis sativa is a multi-purpose plant that has been domesticated for bast (phloem) fiber in the stem, a multi-purpose fixed oil in the “seeds” (achenes), and an intoxicating resin secreted by epidermal glands. The common names hemp and marijuana (much less frequently spelled marihuana) have been applied loosely to all three forms, although historically hemp has been used primarily for the fiber cultigen and its fiber preparations, and marijuana for the drug cultigen and its drug preparations. The current hemp industry is making great efforts to point out that “hemp is not marijuana.” Italicized, Cannabis refers to the biological name of the plant (only one species of this genus is commonly recognized, C. sativa L.). Non-italicized, “cannabis” is a generic abstraction, widely used as a noun and adjective, and commonly (often loosely) used both for cannabis plants and/or any or all of the intoxicant preparations made from them.

Probably indigenous to temperate Asia, C. sativa is the most widely cited example of a “camp follower.” It was pre-adapted to thrive in the manured soils around man’s early settlements, which quickly led to its domestication (Schultes 1970). Hemp was harvested by the Chinese 8500 years ago (Schultes and Hofmann 1980). For most of its history,C. sativa was most valued as a fiber source, considerably less so as an intoxicant, and only to a limited extent as an oilseed crop. Hemp is one of the oldest sources of textile fiber, with extant remains of hempen cloth trailing back 6 millennia. Hemp grown for fiber was introduced to western Asia and Egypt, and subsequently to Europe somewhere between 1000 and 2000 BCE. Cultivation in Europe became widespread after 500 ce. The crop was first brought to South America in 1545, in Chile, and to North America in Port Royal, Acadia in 1606. The hemp industry flourished in Kentucky, Missouri, and Illinois between 1840 and 1860 because of the strong demand for sailcloth and cordage (Ehrensing 1998). From the end of the Civil War until 1912, virtually all hemp in the US was produced in Kentucky. During World War I, some hemp cultivation occurred in several states, including Kentucky, Wisconsin, California, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Kansas, and Iowa (Ehrensing 1998). The second world war led to a brief revival of hemp cultivation in the Midwest, as well as in Canada, because the war cut off supplies of fiber (substantial renewed cultivation also occurred in Germany for the same reason). Until the beginning of the 19th century, hemp was the leading cordage fiber. Until the middle of the 19th century, hemp rivaled flax as the chief textile fiber of vegetable origin, and indeed was described as “the king of fiber-bearing plants,—the standard by which all other fibers are measured” (Boyce 1900). Nevertheless, the Marihuana Tax Act applied in 1938 essentially ended hemp production in the United States, although a small hemp fiber industry continued in Wisconsin until 1958. Similarly in 1938 the cultivation of Cannabis became illegal in Canada under the Opium and Narcotics Act.

Hemp, grown under license mostly in Canada, is the most publicized “new” crop in North America. Until very recently the prohibition against drug forms of the plant prevented consideration of cultivation of fiber and oilseed cultivars in Canada. However, in the last 10 years three key developments occurred: (1) much-publicized recent advances in the legal cultivation of hemp in western Europe, especially for new value-added products; (2) enterprising farmers and farm groups became convinced of the agricultural potential of hemp in Canada, and obtained permits to conduct experimental cultivation; and (3) lobby groups convinced the government of Canada that narcotic forms of the hemp plant are distinct and distinguishable from fiber and oilseed forms. In March 1998, new regulations (under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act) were provided to allow the commercial development of a hemp industry in Canada, and since then more than a thousand licenses have been issued. Hectares licensed for cultivation for 1998–2001 were respectively, 2,500, 14,200, 5,487, and 1,355, the decreasing trend due to a glut of seed produced in 1999 and pessimism over new potential regulations barring exports to the US. Information on the commercial potential of hemp in Canada is in Blade (1998), Marcus (1998), and Pinfold Consulting (1998). In the US, a substantial trade in hemp products has developed, based on imports of hemp fiber, grain, and oil. The American agricultural community has observed this, and has had success at the state level in persuading legislators of the advisability of experimental hemp cultivation as a means of evaluating the wisdom of re-establishing American hemp production. However, because of opposition by the federal government, to date there has only been a small experimental plot in Hawaii. Information on the commercial potential of hemp in the US is presented in the following.

Cannabis sativa is extremely unusual in the diversity of products for which it is or can be cultivated. Popular Mechanics magazine (1938) touted hemp as “the new billion dollar crop,” stating that it “can be used to produce more than 25,000 products, ranging from dynamite to Cellophane.” Table 1 presents the principal products for which the species is cultivated in Europe, all of which happen to be based on fiber. This presentation stresses the products that hold the most promise for North America, which also include a considerable range of oilseed applications (Table 2; Fig. 1).

Table 1. Hemp fiber usage in the European Union in 1999 (after Karus et al. 2000).

Class of productQuantity 
consumed 
(tonnes)Relative 
percentageSpecialty pulp (cigarette paper, bank notes, technical filters, and hygiene products)24,88287Composites for autos1,7706Construction & thermal insulation materials1,0954Geotextiles2340.8Other6502.2Total26,821100Table 2. Analysis of commercial Cannabis product potential in North America in order of decreasing value toward the right and toward the bottom.

Seeds (achenes)Long ("bark) fiberWoody stem coreFemale floral (perigonal) bractWhole plantConfectionary, baked goodsPlastic-molded productsAnimal beddingMedicinal cannabinoidsAlcoholSalad oilSpecialty papersThermal insulationEssential oil (for flavor & perfume)Fuelody care "cosmeticsConstruction fiberboardConstruction (fiberboard, plaster board, etc.)Insect repellantSilageAnimal food (whole seeds for birds, presscake for mammalian livestock)Biodegradable landscape matting & plant culture products   Gamma-linolenic acid dietary supplementsCoarse textiles (carpets, upholstery)   Specialty industrial oilsFine textiles   

Fig. 1. Major uses of industrial hemp.

BASIC CATEGORIES OF CANNABIS AND THEIR FIELD ARCHITECTURECannabis sativa is an annual wind-pollinated plant, normally dioecious and dimorphic, although sometimes monoecious (mostly in several modern European fiber cultivars). Figure 2 presents the basic morphology of the species. Some special hybrids, obtained by pollinating females of dioecious lines with pollen from monoecious plants, are predominantly female (so-called “all-female,” these generally also produce some hermaphrodites and occasional males). All-female lines are productive for some purposes (e.g. they are very uniform, and with very few males to take up space they can produce considerable grain), but the hybrid seed is expensive to produce. Staminate or “male” plants tend to be 10%–15% taller and are less robust than the pistillate or “female” (note the comparatively frail male in Fig. 3). So prolific is pollen production that an isolation distance of about 5 km is usually recommended for generating pure-bred foundation seed. A “perigonal bract” subtends each female flower, and grows to envelop the fruit. While small, secretory, resin-producing glands occur on the epidermis of most of the above-ground parts of the plant, the glands are very dense and productive on the perigonal bracts, which are accordingly of central interest in marijuana varieties. The root is a laterally branched taproot, generally 30–60 cm deep, up to 2.5 m in loose soils, very near the surface and more branched in wet soils. Extensive root systems are key to the ability of hemp crops to exploit deep supplies of nutrients and water. The stems are erect, furrowed, and usually branched, with a woody interior, and may be hollow in the internodes. Although the stem is often woody, the species is frequently referred to as a herb or forb. Plants vary enormously in height depending on genetic constitution and environment (Fig. 4), but are typically 1–5 m (heights of 12 m or more in cultivation have been claimed).



Fig. 2. Cannabis sativa. This superb composite plate by artist Elmer Smith, often reproduced at a very small scale and without explanation in marijuana books, is the best scientific illustration of the hemp plant ever prepared. 1. Flowering branch of male plant. 2. Flowering branch of female plant. 3. Seedling. 4. Leaflet. 5. Cluster of male flowers. 6. Female flower, enclosed by perigonal bract. 7. Mature fruit enclosed in perigonal bract. 8. Seed (achene), showing wide face. 9. Seed, showing narrow face. 10. Stalked secretory gland. 11. Top of sessile secretory gland. 12. Long section of cystolith hair (note calcium carbonate concretion at base). Reproduced with the permission of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

Fig. 3. Photograph of Cannabis sativa. Left, staminate (“male”) plant in flower; right, pistillate (“female”) plant in flower.Fig. 4. United States National Institute of Health, University of Mississippi marijuana plantation site, showing variation in plant size. A tall fiber-type of hemp plant is shown at left, and a short narcotic variety (identified as “Panama Gold”) at right.There is great variation in Cannabis sativa, because of disruptive domestication for fiber, oilseed, and narcotic resin, and there are features that tend to distinguish these three cultigens (cultivated phases) from each other. Moreover, density of cultivation is used to accentuate certain architectural features. Figure 5 illustrates the divergent appearances of the basic agronomic categories of Cannabis in typical field configurations.



Fig. 5. Typical architecture of categories of cultivated Cannabis sativa. Top left: narcotic plants are generally low, highly branched, and grown well-spaced. Top right: plants grown for oilseed were traditionally well-spaced, and the plants developed medium height and strong branching. Bottom left: fiber cultivars are grown at high density, and are unbranched and very tall. Bottom center: “dual purpose” plants are grown at moderate density, tend to be slightly branched and of medium to tall height. Bottom right: some recent oilseed cultivars are grown at moderate density and are short and relatively unbranched. Degree of branching and height are determined both by the density of the plants and their genetic background.

Highly selected forms of the fiber cultigen possess features maximizing fiber production. Since the nodes tend to disrupt the length of the fiber bundles, thereby limiting quality, tall, relatively unbranched plants with long internodes have been selected. Another strategy has been to select stems that are hollow at the internodes, with limited wood, since this maximizes production of fiber in relation to supporting woody tissues. Similarly, limited seed productivity concentrates the plant’s energy into production of fiber, and fiber cultivars often have low genetic propensity for seed output. Selecting monoecious strains overcomes the problem of differential maturation times and quality of male (staminate) and female (pistillate) plants (males mature 1–3 weeks earlier). Male plants in general are taller, albeit slimmer, less robust, and less productive. Except for the troublesome characteristic of dying after anthesis, male traits are favored for fiber production, in contrast to the situation for drug strains noted below. In former, labor-intensive times, the male plants were harvested earlier than the females, to produce superior fiber. The limited branching of fiber cultivars is often compensated for by possession of large leaves with wide leaflets, which obviously increase the photosynthetic ability of the plants. Since fiber plants have not generally been selected for narcotic purposes, the level of intoxicating constituents is usually limited.

An absence of such fiber-strain traits as tallness, limited branching, long internodes, and very hollow stems, is characteristic of narcotic strains. Drug forms have historically been grown in areas south of the north-temperate zone, often close to the equator, and are photoperiodically adapted to a long season. When grown in north-temperate climates maturation is much-delayed until late fall, or the plants succumb to cold weather before they are able to produce seeds. Unlike fiber strains that have been selected to grow well at extremely high densities, drug strains tend to be less persistent when grown in high concentration (de Meijer 1994). Drug strains can be very similar in appearance to fiber strains. However, a characteristic type of narcotic plant was selected in southern Asia, particularly in India and neighboring countries. This is dioecious, short (about a meter in height), highly branched, with large leaves (i.e. wide leaflets), and it is slow to mature. The appearance is rather like a short, conical Christmas tree.

Until recent times, the cultivation of hemp primarily as an oilseed was largely unknown, except in Russia. Today, it is difficult to reconstruct the type of plant that was grown there as an oilseed, because such cultivation has essentially been abandoned. Oilseed hemp cultivars in the modern sense were not available until very recently, but some land races certainly were grown specifically for seeds in Russia. Dewey (1914) gave the following information: “The short oil-seed hemp with slender stems, about 30 inches high, bearing compact clusters of seeds and maturing in 60 to 90 days, is of little value for fiber production, but the experimental plants, grown from seed imported from Russia, indicate that it may be valuable as an oil-seed crop to be harvested and threshed in the same manner as oil-seed flax.” Most hemp oilseed in Europe is currently obtained from so-called “dual usage” plants (employed for harvest of both stem fiber and seeds, from the same plants). Of the European dual-usage cultivars, ‘Uniko B’ and ‘Fasamo’ are particularly suited to being grown as oilseeds. Very recently, cultivars have been bred specifically for oilseed production. These include ‘Finola,’ formerly known as ‘Fin-314’ (Fig. 6) and ‘Anka’ (Fig. 7), which are relatively short, little-branched, mature early in north-temperate regions, and are ideal for high-density planting and harvest with conventional equipment. Dewey (1914) noted that a Turkish narcotic type of land race called “Smyrna” was commonly used in the early 20th century in the US to produce birdseed, because (like most narcotic types of Cannabis) it is densely branched, producing many flowers, hence seeds. While oilseed land races in northern Russia would have been short, early-maturing plants in view of the short growing season, in more southern areas oilseed landraces likely had moderate height, and were spaced more widely to allow abundant branching and seed production to develop. Until Canada replaced China in 1998 as a source of imported seeds for the US, most seeds used for various purposes in the US were sterilized and imported from China. Indeed, China remains the largest producer of hempseed. We have grown Chinese hemp land races, and these were short, branched, adapted to a very long growing season (i.e. they come into flower very slowly in response to photoperiodic induction of short days in the fall), and altogether they were rather reminiscent of Dewey’s description of Smyrna. Although similar in appearance to narcotic strains of C. sativa, the Chinese land races we grew were in fact low in intoxicating constituents, and it may well be that what Dewey thought was a narcotic strain was not. Although some forms of C. sativa have quite large seeds, until recently oilseed forms appear to have been mainly selected for a heavy yield of seeds, usually recognizable by abundant branching. Such forms are typically grown at lower densities than hemp grown only for fiber, as this promotes branching, although it should be understood that the genetic propensity for branching has been selected. Percentage or quality of oil in the seeds does not appear to have been important in the past, although selection for these traits is now being conducted. Most significantly, modern selection is occurring with regard to mechanized harvesting, particularly the ability to grow in high density as single-headed stalks with very short branches bearing considerable seed.

Fig. 6. ‘Finola,’ the first cultivar of Cannabis sativa bred exclusively for grain. (Courtesy of the breeder, J.C. Callaway, Univ. Kuopio, Finland.)Fig. 7. ‘Anka,’ the first registered North American bred cultivar of Cannabis sativa. This variety is best suited for grain production. (Courtesy of the breeder, P. Dragla, and of the Industrial Hemp Seed Development Company, Chatham, Ontario.)CONTROLLING THE DRUG ABUSE POTENTIAL OF HEMPAs detailed below, the development of hemp as a new legal crop in North America must be considered in relation to illicit cultivation, so it is important to appreciate the scope of the drug situation. Up until the first half of the 20th century, drug preparations of Cannabis were used predominantly as a recreational inebriant in poor countries and the lower socio-economic classes of developed nations. After World War II, marijuana became associated with the rise of a hedonistic, psychedelic ethos, first in the United States and eventually over much of the world, with the consequent development of a huge international illicit market that exceeds the value of the hemp market during its heyday. Table 3 shows the “economic significance” (dollars generated in the black market plus dollar cost of control measures) of the illicit drug industry associated with C. sativa, and contrasts this with the estimated dollar value of major categories of legitimate uses. In the Netherlands, the annual value of narcotic hemp cultivation (ca. $10 billion) exceeds the value of tulips (Collins 1999). Marijuana has become the most widely disseminated illicit species in the world (Schultes and Hofmann 1980). With the exception of alcohol, it is the most widely used recreational euphoric drug. About 25% of North Americans are believed to have used Cannabis illegally. According to the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/marijuana.html), more than 72 million Americans (33%) 12 years of age and older have tried marijuana. Cultivation, commerce, and consumption of drug preparations of Cannabis have been proscribed in most countries during the present century. The cost of enforcing the laws against Cannabis in North America is in the billions of dollars annually. In addition, there are substantial social costs, such as adverse effects on users, particularly those who are convicted. Tragically this includes some legitimate farmers who, faced with financial ruin because of the unprofitability of crops being grown, converted to growing marijuana.

Table 3. Comparative annual world economic significance of categories of Cannabis activity.

CategoryWorld ($)North America ($)Type of investmentRecreational drugs> 1 trillion100s of billionsLaw enforcement, eradication, educationIndustrial hemp100s of millionsz10s of millionsProduction, development, marketing, researchTherapeutic drugs100s of millions10s of millionsProduction, development, marketing, researchPhytoremediation10s of thousandsnilResearchOrnamental hempthousandsnilDevelopmentz“The global market for hemp-derived products is valued at between $100 million and $200 million annually” (Pinfold Consulting 1998; De Guzman 2001).

A rather thorough analysis of the scope of the illicit marijuana industry in Canada for 1998 is reported at www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/html/drugsituation.htm#Marihuana and summarized in MacLeod (1999). At least 800 tonnes (t) of marijuana were grown in Canada in 1998, representing a harvest of 4.7 million flowering plants. More than 50% of the marijuana available in Canada is grown domestically. An average mature plant was estimated to produce 170 g of “marketable substance.” The value of the Canadian crop is uncertain, but has been estimated to be in the billions of dollars annually (Heading 1998; MacLeod 1999).

The US Drug Enforcement Administration’s online criminal justice statistics for 2000 (cscmosaic.albany.edu/sourcebook/1995/pdf/t440.pdf) shows the following seizures and eradication of plants of C. sativa: 40,929 outdoor plots (2,597,796 plants), 139,580,728 ditchweed (ruderal plants), 2,361 indoor operations (217,105 plants), for a grand total of 2,814, 903 plants destroyed. Impressively, the species was grown in all 50 states (including outdoor seizures in every state except Wyoming)! It is of course impossible to know exactly how much marijuana is cultivated in the United States, and perhaps only 10% to 20% of the amount grown is seized. The profitability of the illegal crop is indicated by a comparison of the cost of a bushel of corn (roughly $2.50) and a bushel of manicured marijuana (about $70,000; it has been suggested that prices range from $500 a pound, for low-quality marijuana, to more than $5,000 a pound for “boutique” strains like “Northern Lights” and “Afghan Kush”). According to a National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) (mir.drugtext.org/marijuananews/marijuana_ranks_fourth_largest_c.htm) marijuana is at least the fourth most valuable crop in America, outranked only by corn, soybeans, and hay. It was estimated that 8.7 million marijuana plants were harvested in 1997, worth $15.1 billion to growers and $25.2 billion on the retail market (the wholesale value was used to compare marijuana to other cash crops). Marijuana was judged to be the largest revenue producing crop in Alabama, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Kentucky, Maine, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, and one of the top five cash crops in 29 other states.

Cannabis contains a seemingly unique class of chemicals, the cannabinoids, of which more than 60 have been described, but only a few are psychoactive. Cannabinoids are produced in specialized epidermal glands, which differ notably in distribution on different organs of the plant (high concentrations occur on the upper surface of the young leaves and young twigs, on the tepals, stamens, and especially on the perigonal bract). Given this distribution, the glands would seem to be protective of young and reproductive above-ground tissues (the roots lack glands). Two classes of epidermal glands occur—stalked and sessile (Fig. 8), but in either case the glandular cells are covered by a sheath under which resin is accumulated, until the sheath ruptures, releasing resin on the surface. The resin is a sticky mixture of cannabinoids and a variety of terpenes. The characteristic odor of the plant is due to the abundant terpenes, which are not psychoactive. The more important cannabinoids are shown in Fig. 9. In the plant the cannabinoids exist predominantly in the form of carboxylic acids, which decarboxylate with time or when heated. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC, or simply THC) is the predominant psychoactive component. Other THC isomers also occur, particularly D8-THC, which is also psychoactive. Technically, the euphoric psychological effects of THC are best described by the word psychotomimetic. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the chief non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid. A THC concentration in marijuana of approximately 0.9% has been suggested as a practical minimum level to achieve the (illegal) intoxicant effect, but CBD (the predominant cannabinoid of fiber and oilseed varieties) antagonizes (i.e. reduces) the effects of THC (Grotenhermen and Karus 1998). Concentrations of 0.3% to 0.9% are considered to have “only a small drug potential” (Grotenhermen and Karus 1998). Some cannabinoid races have been described, notably containing cannabichromene (particularly in high-THC forms) and cannabigerol monomethyl ether (in some Asian strains). The biosynthetic pathways of the cannabinoids are not yet satisfactorily elucidated, although the scheme shown in Fig. 10 is commonly accepted. At least in some strains, THC is derived from cannabigerol, while in others it may be derived from CBD. CBN and D8-THC are considered to be degradation products or analytical artifacts (Pate 1998a).

Fig. 8. Scanning electron micrographs of the abaxial surface of a perigonal bract (which envelops the fruit). These bracts are the most intoxicating part of the plant, and may contain 20% THC, dry weight. The resin is synthesized both in stalked and sessile glands. Multicellular secretory glands (of phallic appearance), some broken stalks of these (note cellular appearance), and unicellular cystolith hairs (claw-like structures) are pictured.Fig. 9. Some important cannabinoids of cannabis resin. D9-THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) is the chief intoxicant chemical and predominates in intoxicant strains, while the isomer D8-THC is usually present in no more than trace amounts. CBD (cannabidiol) is the chief non-intoxicant chemical, and predominates in non-intoxicant strains; it has sedative effects. The non-intoxicant CBN (cannabinol) is a frequent degradation or oxidation product. The non-intoxicant cannabichromene (CBC) is typically found in trace amounts in intoxicant strains. The non-intoxicant cannabigerol (CBG) is considered to be a precursor of the other cannbinoids (see Fig. 10).

Fig. 10. Proposed biosynthetic pathways of the principal cannabinoids (after Pate 1998b).

Both in Canada and the US, the most critical problem to be addressed for commercial exploitation of C. sativa is the possible unauthorized drug use of the plant. Indeed, the reason hemp cultivation was made illegal in North America was concern that the hemp crop was a drug menace. The drug potential is, for practical purposes, measured by the presence of THC. THC is the world’s most popular illicit chemical, and indeed the fourth most popular recreational drug, after caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. “Industrial hemp” is a phrase that has become common to designate hemp used for commercial non-intoxicant purposes. Small and Cronquist (1976) split C. sativa into two subspecies: C. sativasubsp. sativa, with less than 0.3% (dry weight) of THC in the upper (reproductive) part of the plant, and C. sativa subsp. indica (Lam.) E. Small & Cronq. with more than 0.3% THC. This classification has since been adopted in the European Community, Canada, and parts of Australia as a dividing line between cultivars that can be legally cultivated under license and forms that are considered to have too high a drug potential. For a period, 0.3% was also the allowable THC content limit for cultivation of hemp in the Soviet Union. In the US, Drug Enforcement Agency guidelines issued Dec. 7, 1999 expressly allowed products with a THC content of less than 0.3% to enter the US without a license; but subsequently permissible levels have been a source of continuing contention. Marijuana in the illicit market typically has a THC content of 5% to 10% (levels as high as 25% have been reported), and as a point of interest, a current Canadian government experimental medicinal marijuana production contract calls for the production of 6% marijuana. As noted above, a level of about 1% THC is considered the threshold for marijuana to have intoxicating potential, so the 0.3% level is conservative, and some countries (e.g. parts of Australia, Switzerland) have permitted the cultivation of cultivars with higher levels. It should be appreciated that there is considerable variation in THC content in different parts of the plant. THC content increases in the following order: achenes (excluding bracts), roots, large stems, smaller stems, older and larger leaves, younger and smaller leaves, flowers, perigonal bracts covering both the female flowers and fruits. It is well known in the illicit trade how to screen off the more potent fractions of the plant in order to increase THC levels in resultant drug products. Nevertheless, a level of 0.3% THC in the flowering parts of the plant is reflective of material that is too low in intoxicant potential to actually be used practically for illicit production of marijuana or other types of cannabis drugs. Below, the problem of permissible levels of THC in food products made from hempseed is discussed.

There is a general inverse relationship in the resin of Cannabis between the amounts of THC present and the amount of the other principal cannabinoid, CBD. Whereas most drug strains contain primarily THC and little or no CBD, fiber and oilseed strains primarily contain CBD and very little THC. CBD can be converted to THC by acid catalyzed cyclization, and so could serve as a starting material for manufacturing THC. In theory, therefore, low-THC cultivars do not completely solve the problem of drug abuse potential. In practice, however, the illicit drug trade has access to easier methods of synthesizing THC or its analogues than by first extracting CBD from non-drug hemp strains.

Breeding for low THC cultivars in Europe has been reviewed by Bócsa (1998), Bócsa and Karus (1998), and Virovets (1996). Some researchers have claimed to have produced essentially THC-free strains, although at present no commercial cultivar seems to be 100% free of THC. THC content has proven to be more easily reduced in monoecious than in dioecious varieties. It should be possible to select THC-free strains, and there has been speculation that genetic engineering could be helpful in this regard. As a strategic economic and political tactic, France has been attempting for several years to have the European Union (EU) adopt legislation forbidding the cultivation of industrial hemp cultivars with more than 0.1% THC, which would mean that primarily French varieties would have to be cultivated in Europe. However, the Canadian government has found that some French material has proven to be excessively high in THC.

There is certainly a need to utilize available germplasm sources in order to breed suitable cultivars for North America. A list of the 24 approved cultivars for the 2001 season in Canada is at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb-dgps/therapeut/htmleng/hemp.html. Most of these are regulated by the European Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These cultivars are “approved” for use in Canada not on agricultural criteria, but merely on the basis that they meet the THC criterion. Indeed, most of these are unsuitable or only marginally suitable for Canada (Small and Marcus 2000), and only a very few Canadian cultivars to date have been created. In Canada, every acquisition of hemp grown at a particular place and time must be tested for THC content by an independent laboratory and, under the industrial hemp regulations, fields of hemp with more than 0.3% THC may require destruction (a slight degree of flexibility is generally exercised). Importation of experimental hemp lines (i.e. other than the approved cultivars) requires importation licenses (as well as phytosanitary clearance of the shipment by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency), and the importation licenses require an indication that the THC contents are low.

In Canada, the methodology used for analyses and sample collection for THC analysis of hemp plantings is standardized (at the Health Canada/Therapeutics Program/Hemp web site at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb-dgps/therapeut/htmleng/hemp.html, see “Industrial Hemp Technical Manual” for procedures on sampling plant materials and chemical procedures for determining THC levels). The regulations require that one of the dozen independent laboratories licensed for the purpose conduct the analyses and report the results to Health Canada. Sample collection is also normally carried out by an independent authorized firm. The Canadian system of monitoring THC content has rigidly limited hemp cultivation to cultivars that consistently develop THC levels below 0.3%.

Because C. sativa has been a neglected crop for so long in North America, there are only negligible genetic resources available on this continent. Most germplasm stocks of hemp are in Europe, and the largest and most important collection is the Vavilov Institute gene bank in Leningrad. Figure 11 shows THC concentrations in the Vavilov collection, as well as in our own collection, largely of European germplasm. A disturbingly high percentage of the collections have THC levels higher than 0.3%, making it difficult to incorporate these into breeding programs.



Fig. 11. Frequency histograms of THC concentration in germplasm collections. Left, collection of E. Small and D. Marcus; of the 167 accessions, 43% had THC levels >0.3%. Right, the collection of the Vavilov Institute, St. Petersburg; of the 278 accessions for which chemical analyses were reported in Anonymous (1975), about 55% had THC levels >0.3%.

Soil characteristics, latitude and climatic stresses have been found to have significant effects on THC concentrations, and there are seasonal and even diurnal variations (Small 1979; Pate 1998b). However, the range of THC concentrations developed by low-THC cultivars (those typically with £0.3% THC) under different circumstances on the whole is limited, for the most part generally not varying more than 0.2 percentage points when grown in a range of circumstances, and usually less (note information in Scheifle et al. 1999; Scheifle 2000, Scheifle and Dragla 2000). Practically, this has meant in Canadian experience that a few cultivars have been eliminated from further commercial cultivation because they sometimes exceed the 0.3% level (‘Fedora 19’ and ‘Futura,’ authorized in 2000, have now been removed because some test results in several years exceeded 0.3%; ‘Finola’ and ‘Uniko B’ are under probation because of elevated levels), but on the whole most of the permitted cultivars have maintained highly consistent development of quite low levels of THC.

Hemp seeds contain virtually no THC, but THC contamination results from contact of the seeds with the resin secreted by the epidermal glands on the leaves and floral parts, and also by the failure to sift away all of the bracts (which have the highest concentration of THC of any parts of the plant) that cover the seeds. This results in small levels of THC appearing in hempseed oil and foods made with the seeds. Although most of the western hemp-growing world uses 0.3% THC as a maximum concentration for authorized cultivation of hemp plants, regulations in various countries allow only a much lower level of THC in human food products manufactured from the seeds. Currently, up to 10 ppm THC is permitted in seeds and oil products used for food purposes in Canada. In Germany, more stringent limits were set for food in 2000: 5 ppm in food oil, 0.005 ppm in beverages, and 0.15 ppm in all other foods. The US Drug Enforcement Administration published new regulations on hemp in the Federal Register on October 9th 2001 that in effect 4 months later would ban the food use of hemp in the US because any amount of THC would be unacceptable in foods (follow links at www.hempreport.com/). These proposals are currently being challenged by the hemp industry. Limits have been set because of concerns about possible toxicity and interference with drug tests (Grotenhermen et al. 1998). An extensive analysis of literature dealing with the toxicity of hemp is in Orr and Starodub (1999; see Geiwitz 2001 for an analysis). Because hemp food products are considered to have great economic potential, there is considerable pressure on the hemp industry in North America to reduce THC levels.

The Drug Enforcement Agency and the Office of National Drug Control Policy of the US raised concerns over tests conducted from 1995 to 1997 that showed that consumption of hempseed products available during that period led to interference with drug-testing programs for marijuana use. Federal US programs utilize a THC metabolite level of 50 parts per billion in urine. Leson (2000) found that this level was not exceeded by consuming hemp products, provided that THC levels are maintained below 5 ppm in hemp oil, and below 2 ppm in hulled seeds. Nevertheless the presence of even minute trace amounts of THC in foods remains a tool that can be used by those wishing to prevent the hemp oilseed industry from developing.

FIBER USESBased on world production of fibers in 1999, about 54.5% was synthetic (of which 60.3% was polyester), 42.9% was plant fiber (of which 78.5% was cotton), and 2.6% was wool (Karus 2000). In addition to cotton, flax is the only other significant plant fiber crop grown in temperate regions of the world (kenaf has received some enthusiastic backing in the southern US in recent years, but is most cheaply produced in India, Bangladesh, and China). Flax held 2.7% of the world plant fiber market in 1999, while hemp had only 0.3% (Karus 2000). Hemp fiber can potentially replace other biological fibers in many applications, but also, as noted below, can sometimes compete with minerals such as glass fiber and steel. As forests diminish, cultivation of annual plants as fiber sources is likely to increase. While crop residues like cereal straw will probably supply much of the need, specialty fiber plants such as hemp also have potential. The four conditions that will need to be met are (after Bolton 1995): (1) the material should be produced at a large enough scale; (2) the price should be low enough; (3) the fiber characteristics should be adequate for the end use; and (4) proven technology should be available for the processing of the new raw material. Of these criteria only point 3 is adequately met at this time for hemp in North America, but this is to be expected in a crop that has only begun to be cultivated after an absence of many years.

One of the reasons hemp fiber has been valued is because of its length. The primary bast fibers in the bark are 5–40 mm long, and are amalgamated in fiber bundles which can be 1–5 m long (secondary bast fibers are about 2 mm long). The woody core fibers are short—about 0.55 mm—and like hardwood fibers are cemented together with considerable lignin. The core fibers are generally considered too short for high grade paper applications (a length of 3 mm is considered ideal), and too much lignin is present. While the long bast fibers have been used to make paper almost for 2 millennia, the woody core fibers have rarely been so used. Nevertheless it has been suggested that the core fibers could be used for paper making, providing appropriate technology was developed (de Groot et al. 1998). In any event, the core fibers, have found a variety of uses, as detailed below. The long, lignin-poor bast fibers also have considerable potential to be used in many non-paper, non-textile applications, as noted below.

Selection for fiber has resulted in strains that have much more bark fiber tissues and much less woody core than encountered in narcotic strains, oilseed strains, and wild plants (Fig. 12). In non-fiber strains of Cannabis, bark can be less than one quarter of the stem tissues (i.e. more than three quarters can be woody core). By contrast, in fiber strains half of the stem tissues can be bark, and more than half of this can be the desirable long primary fibers (de Meijer 1995). Non-fiber strains rarely have as much as 15% fiber in the bark.



Fig. 12. Cross sections of stems at internodes of a fiber plant (left) and of a narcotic plant (right). Fiber cultivars have stems that are more hollow at the internodes, i.e. less wood, since this allows more energy to be directed into the production of bark fiber.

Other desirable features of hemp fibers are strength and durability (particularly resistance to decay), which made hemp useful in the past for rope, nets, sail-cloth, and oakum for caulking. During the age of sailing ships, Cannabis was considered to provide the very best of canvas, and indeed this word is derived from Cannabis. Several factors combined to decrease the popularity of hemp in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Increasing limitation of cheap labor for traditional production in Europe and the New World led to the creation of some mechanical inventions, but too late to counter growing interest in competitive crops. Development of other natural fibers as well as synthetic fibers increased competition for hemp’s uses as a textile fiber and for cordage. Hemp rag had been much used for paper, but the 19th century introduction of the chemical woodpulping process considerably lowered demand for hemp. The demise of the sail diminished the market for canvas. Increasing use of the plant for drugs gave hemp a bad image. All this led to the discontinuation of hemp cultivation in the early and middle parts of the 20th century in much of the world where cheap labor was limited. In the 19th century softer fabrics took over the clothing market, and today, hemp constitutes only about 1% of the natural fiber market. At least some production of hemp for fiber still occurs in Russia, China, the Ukraine, Poland, Hungary, the countries of the former Yugoslavia, Romania, Korea, Chile, and Peru. There has been renewed interest in England, Australia, and South Africa in cultivating fiber hemp. Italy has an outstanding reputation for high-quality hemp, but productivity has waned for the last several decades. In France, a market for high-quality paper, ironically largely cigarette paper, has developed (such paper is completely free of the intoxicating resin). Modern plant breeding in Europe has produced several dozen hemp strains, although by comparison with other fiber crops there are relatively few described varieties of hemp. Since World War II, breeding has been concerned most particularly with the development of monoecious varieties. Gehl (1995) reviewed fiber hemp development in Canada in the early 20th century, and concluded that the prospects for a traditional fiber industry were poor. However, as outlined below, there are now many non-traditional usages for hemp fiber which require consideration. Hemp long fiber is one of the strongest and most durable of natural fibers, with high tensile strength, wet strength, and other characteristics that make it technically suited for various industrial products (Karus and Leson 1996).

From 1982 to 2002 the EU provided the equivalent of about 50 million dollars to develop new flax and hemp harvesting and fiber processing technologies (Karus et al. 2000). Because of the similarities of flax and hemp, the technologies developed for one usually are adaptable to the other. In addition, various European nations and private firms contributed to the development of hemp technologies. Accordingly, Europe is far more advanced in hemp development with respect to all fiber-based applications than other parts of the world. The EU currently dedicates about 30,000 ha to hemp production. France is the leading country in hemp cultivation in the EU, and 95% of the non-seed production is used for “specialty pulp” as described below. Harvesting and processing machinery for fiber hemp is highly advanced in Europe, and some has been imported into Canada. However, there is insufficient fiber processing capacity to handle hemp produced in Canada.

TextilesHemp is a bast fiber crop, i.e. the most desirable (“long”) fibers are found in the phloem-associated tissues external to the phloem, just under the “bark.” The traditional and still major first step in fiber extraction is to ret (“rot”) away the softer parts of the plant, by exposing the cut stems to microbial decay in the field (“dew retting,” shown in Figs. 46 and 47) or submerged in water (“water retting, ” shown in Fig. 13). The result is to slough off the outer parts of the stem and to loosen the inner woody core (the “hurds”) from the phloem fibers (Fig. 14). Water retting has been largely abandoned in countries where labor is expensive or environmental regulations exist. Water retting, typically by soaking the stalks in ditches, can lead to a high level of pollution. Most hemp fiber used in textiles today is water retted in China and Hungary. Retting in tanks rather than in open bodies of water is a way of controlling the effluents while taking advantage of the high-quality fiber that is produced. Unlike flax, hemp long fiber requires water retting for preparation of high-quality spinnable fibers for production of fine textiles. Improved microorganisms or enzymes could augment or replace traditional water retting. Steam explosion is another potential technology that has been experimentally applied to hemp (Garcia-Jaldon et al. 1998). Decorticated material (i.e. separated at least into crude fiber) is the raw material, and this is subjected to steam under pressure and increased temperature which “explodes” (separates) the fibers so that one has a more refined (thinner) hemp fiber that currently is only available from water retting. Even when one has suitably separated long fiber, specialized harvesting, processing, spinning and weaving equipment are required for preparing fine hemp textiles. The refinement of equipment and new technologies are viewed as offering the possibility of making fine textile production practical in western Europe and North America, but at present China controls this market, and probably will remain dominant for the foreseeable future.

Fig. 13. Water retting of hemp in Yugoslavia. (Courtesy of Dr. J. Berenji, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad.)
Fig. 14. Fiber in retted hemp stem. This stem was bent sharply after retting, breaking the woody central portion (hurds), leaving the bark fibers unbroken. The two portions of stem are separated in this photograph, and are joined by the tough bark fibers.There are practical, if cruder alternatives to separate the long fiber for high-quality textile production, but in fact such techniques are used mostly for non-textile applications. This involves production of “whole fibers” (i.e. harvesting both the long fibers from the cortex and the shorter fibers from throughout the stem), and technologies that utilize shortened hemp fibers. This approach is currently dominant in western Europe and Canada, and commences with field dew retting (typically 2–3 weeks). A principal limitation is climatic—the local environment should be suitably but not excessively moist at the close of the harvest season. Once stalks are retted, dried, and baled, they are processed to extract the fiber. In traditional hemp processing, the long fiber was separated from the internal woody hurds in two steps, breaking (stalks were crushed under rollers that broke the woody core into short pieces, some of which were separated) and scutching (the remaining hurds, short fibers (“tow”) and long fibers (“line fiber, ” “long-line fiber”) were separated). A single, relatively expensive machine called a decorticator can do these two steps as one. In general in the EU and Canada, fibers are not separated into tow and line fibers, but are left as “whole fiber.” In western Europe, the fiber is often “cottonized,” i.e. chopped into short segments the size of cotton and flax fiber, so that the fibers can be processed on flax processing machinery, which is very much better developed than such machinery is for hemp. In North America the use of hemp for production of even crude textiles is marginal. Accordingly, the chief current fiber usages of North American, indeed of European hemp, are non-textile.

Although always sold at a premium price, hemp clothing has a natural appeal to a sector of the population. Hemp clothes are resistant to abrasion, but are typically abrasive. However, appropriate processing and blending with other natural fibers has significantly improved the “feel” of the product, and in China hemp textiles indistinguishable from fine linens in texture are available. Weaving of hemp fibers into textiles and apparel is primarily done in China, Hungary, Romania, Russia, and the Ukraine. Processing costs are higher for industrial hemp because the fibers vary from the standard specifications for fiber length and diameter established for the equipment used in most textile and apparel factories, necessitating the use of specialty machines. The North American hemp apparel industry today is based on fiber, yarn, and fabrics imported from Eastern Europe and China. The extraction technology and spinning facilities, to say nothing of much lower labor costs, make it very difficult for the potential development of a hemp textile industry in North America. The fact that spinning facilities for natural fibers are so concentrated in China is making it increasingly difficult to competitively produce hemp fabrics elsewhere. This of course lessens the value-added future of growing hemp for a potential textile industry in North America. It is possible, however, that new technologies could change this situation, and especially in the EU development is underway to establish a fledgling domestic hemp textile industry. In addition to textiles used in clothing, coarser woven cloth (canvas) is used for upholstery, bags, sacks, and tarpaulins. There is very little effort in North America to produce such woven products, and non-woven material (Fig. 15) can be more easily produced. Hempline in Ontario, the first firm to grow hemp for commercial purposes in North America since the second word war (starting with experimental cultivation in 1994), is the exception, and is concerned with production of fiber for upholstery and carpeting.



Fig. 15. Multi-purpose matting, fabricated from hemp. (Courtesy of Kenex Ltd., Pain Court, Ontario.)

Pulp and PaperVan Roekel (1994) has pointed out that Egyptian papyrus sheets are not “paper,” because the fiber strands are woven, not “wet-laid;” the oldest surviving paper is over 2,000 years of age, from China, and was made from hemp fiber (Fleming and Clarke 1998). Until the early 19th century, hemp, and flax were the chief paper-making materials. In historical times, hemp rag was processed into paper. Using hemp directly for paper was considered too expensive, and in any event the demand for paper was far more limited than today. Wood-based paper came into use when mechanical and chemical pulping was developed in the mid 1800s in Germany and England. Today, at least 95% of paper is made from wood pulp.

The pulp and paper industry based on wood has considered the use of hemp for pulp, but only on an experimental basis. Hemp’s long fibers could make paper more recyclable. Since virgin pulp is required for added strength in the recycling of paper, hemp pulp would allow for at least twice as many cycles as wood pulp. However, various analyses have concluded that the use of hemp for conventional paper pulp is not profitable (Fertig 1996).

“Specialty pulp” is the most important component of the hemp industry of the EU, and is expected to remain its core market for the foreseeable future. The most important specialty pulp products made from hemp are cigarette paper (Fig. 16), bank notes, technical filters, and hygiene products. Other uses include art papers and tea bags. Several of these applications take advantage of hemp’s high tear and wet strength. This is considered to be a highly stable, high-priced niche market in Europe, where hemp has an 87% market share of the “specialty pulp” sector (Karus et al. 2000). In Europe, decortication/refining machines are available that can produce 10 t/hour of hemp fiber suitable for such pulp use. North American capacity for hemp pulp production and value-added processing is much more limited than that of Europe, and this industry is negligible in North America.



Fig. 16. Hemp cigarette paper, the most profitable paper product currently manufactured from hemp.

Hemp paper is useful for specialty applications such as currency and cigarette papers where strength is needed. The bast fiber is of greatest interest to the pulp and paper industry because of its superior strength properties compared to wood. However, the short, bulky fibers found in the inner part of the plant (hurds) can also be used to make cheaper grades of paper, apparently without greatly affecting quality of the printing surface. Hemp is not competitive for newsprint, books, writing papers, and general paper (grocery bags, coffee cups, napkins), although there is a specialty or novelty market for those specifically wishing to support the hemp industry by purchasing hemp writing or printing paper despite the premium price (Fig. 17).



Fig. 17. Hemp paper products (writing paper, notebook, envelopes).

A chief argument that has been advanced in favor of developing hemp as a paper and pulp source has been that as a non-wood or tree-free fiber source, it can reduce harvesting of primary forests and the threat to associated biodiversity. It has been claimed that hemp produces three to four times as much useable fiber per hectare per annum as forests. However, Wong (1998) notes evidence that in the southern US hemp would produce only twice as much pulp as does a pine plantation (but see discussion below on suitability of hemp as a potential lumber substitute in areas lacking trees).

Hemp paper is high-priced for several reasons. Economies of scale are such that the supply of hemp is minute compared to the supply of wood fiber. Hemp processing requires non-wood-based processing facilities. Hemp paper is typically made only from bast fibers, which require separation from the hurds, thereby increasing costs. This represents less than 50% of the possible fiber yield of the plant, and future technologies that pulp the whole stalks could decrease costs substantially. Hemp is harvested once a year, so that it needs to be stored to feed mills throughout the year. Hemp stalks are very bulky, requiring much handling and storage. Transportation costs are also very much higher for hemp stalks than for wood chips. Waste straw is widely available from cereals and other crops, and although generally not nearly as desirable as hemp, can produce bulk pulp far more cheaply than can be made from hemp. In addition to agricultural wastes, there are vast quantities of scrub trees, especially poplar, in northern areas, that can supply large amounts of low-quality wood fiber extremely cheaply. Moreover, in northern areas fast-growing poplars and willows can be grown, and such agro-forestry can be very productive and environmentally benign. And, directly or indirectly, the lumber/paper industry receives subsidies and/or supports, which is most unlikely for hemp.

Plastic Composites for the Automobile and Other Manufacturing SectorsWith respect to fiber, a “composite” is often defined as a material consisting of 30%–70% fiber and 70%–30% matrix (Bolton 1995). However, in North America particleboards and fiberboards, which generally contain less than 10% adhesive or matrix, are sometimes referred to as composites. This section addresses plastic-type composites. In plastics, fibers are introduced to improve physical properties such as stiffness, impact resistance, bending and tensile strength. Man-made fibers of glass, kevlar and carbon are most commonly used today, but plant fibers offer considerable cost savings along with comparable strength properties.

Plastic composites for automobiles are the second most important component of the hemp industry of the EU. Natural fibers in automobile composites are used primarily in press-molded parts (Fig. 18). There are two widespread technologies. In thermoplastic production, natural fibers are blended with polypropylene fibers and formed into a mat, which is pressed under heat into the desired form. In thermoset production the natural fibers are soaked with binders such as epoxy resin or polyurethane, placed in the desired form, and allowed to harden through polymerization. Hemp has also been used in other types of thermoplastic applications, including injection molding. The characteristics of hemp fibers have proven to be superior for production of molded composites. In European manufacturing of cars, natural fibers are used to reinforce door panels, passenger rear decks, trunk linings, and pillars. In 1999 over 20,000 t of natural fiber were used for these purposes in Europe, including about, 2,000 t of hemp. It has been estimated that 5–10 kg of natural fibers can be used in the molded portions of an average automobile (excluding upholstery). The demand for automobile applications of hemp is expected to increase considerably, depending on the development of new technologies (Karus et al. 2000).



Fig. 18. C-class Mercedes-Benz automobiles have more than 30 parts made of natural fibers, including hemp. (Courtesy of T. Schloesser, Daimler-Chrysler.)

Henry Ford recognized the utility of hemp in early times. In advance of today’s automobile manufacturers, he constructed a car with certain components made of resin stiffened with hemp fiber (Fig. 19). Rather ironically in view of today’s parallel situation, Henry Ford’s hemp innovations in the 1920s occurred at a time of crisis for American farms, later to intensify with the depression. The need to produce new industrial markets for farm products led to a broad movement for scientific research in agriculture that came to be labeled “Farm Chemurgy,” that today is embodied in chemical applications of crop constituents.



Fig. 19. Henry Ford swinging an axe at his 1941 car to demonstrate the toughness of the plastic trunk door made of soybean and hemp. (From the collections of Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village.)

There is also considerable potential for other industries using hemp in the manner that the automobile industry has demonstrated is feasible. Of course, all other types of transportation vehicles from bicycles to airplanes might make use of such technology. Natural fibers have considerable advantages for use in conveyance (Karus et al. 2000): low density and weight reduction, favorable mechanical, acoustical, and processing properties (including low wear on tools), no splintering in accidents, occupational health benefits (compared to glass fibers), no off-gassing of toxic compounds, and price advantages. Additional types of composite using hemp in combination with other natural fibers, post-industrial plastics or other types of resins, are being used to produce non-woven matting for padding, sound insulation, and other applications.

Building Construction ProductsThermal Insulation. Thermal insulation products (Fig. 20, 21) are the third most important sector of the hemp industry of the EU. These are in very high demand because of the alarmingly high costs of heating fuels, ecological concerns about conservation of non-renewable resources, and political-strategic concerns about dependence on current sources of oil. This is a market that is growing very fast, and hemp insulation products are increasing in popularity. In Europe, it has been predicted that tens of thousands of tonnes will be sold by 2005, shared between hemp and flax (Karus et al. 2000).

Fig. 20. Spun, loosely compacted hemp insulation. (Manufactured by La Chanvrière de l’Aube, France.)
Fig. 21. Loose Isochanvre® thermal insulation being placed between joists. (Courtesy of M. Périer, Chènovotte Habitat, France.)Fiberboard. In North America the use of nonwood fibers in sheet fiberboard (“pressboard” or “composite board”) products is relatively undeveloped. Flax, jute, kenaf, hemp, and wheat straw can be used to make composite board. Wheat straw is the dominant nonwood fiber in such applications. Although it might seem that hemp bast fibers are desirable in composite wood products because of their length and strength, in fact the short fibers of the hurds have been found to produce a superior product (K. Domier, pers. commun.). Experimental production of hemp fiberboard has produced extremely strong material (Fig. 22). The economic viability of such remains to be tested. Molded fiberboard products are commercially viable in Europe (Fig. 23), but their potential in North America remains to be determined.

Fig. 22. Experimental fiberboard made with hemp. (Courtesy Dr. K. Domier, Univ. Alberta, Edmonton.)
Fig. 23. Molded fiberboard products. (Courtesy of HempFlax, Oude Pekela, The Netherlands).Cement (Concrete) and Plaster. Utilizing the ancient technique of reinforcing clay with straw to produce reinforced bricks for constructing domiciles, plant fibers have found a number of comparable uses in modern times. Hemp fibers added to concrete increase tensile strength while reducing shrinkage and cracking. Whole houses have been made based on hemp fiber (Fig. 24, 25). In North America, such usage has only reached the level of a cottage industry. Fiber-reinforced cement boards and fiber-reinforced plaster are other occasionally produced experimental products. Hemp fibers are produced at much more cost than wood chips and straw from many other crops, so high-end applications requiring high strength seem most appropriate.

Fig. 24. New building in France being constructed entirely of hemp. Wall castings are a conglomerate of Isochanvre® lime-hemp, for production of a 200 mm thick monolithic wall without an interior wall lining. (Courtesy of M. Périer, Chènovotte Habitat, France.)
Fig. 25. The “hemp house” under construction on the Oglala Lakota Nation (Pine Ridge Reservation), South Dakota. Foundation blocks for the house are made with hemp fiber as a binder in cement. Stucco is also of hemp. Shingles are 60% hemp in a synthetic polymer. Hemp insulation is used throughout. (Courtesy of Oglala Sioux Tribe, Slim Butte Land Use Association, and S. Sauser.)The above uses are based on hemp as a mechanical strengthener of materials. Hemp can also be chemically combined with materials. For example, hemp with gypsum and binding agents may produce light panels that might compete with drywall. Hemp and lime mixtures make a high quality plaster. Hemp hurds are rich in silica (which occurs naturally in sand and flint), and the hurds mixed with lime undergo mineralization, to produce a stone-like material. The technology is most advanced in France (Fig. 26). The mineralized material can be blown or poured into the cavities of walls and in attics as insulation. The foundations, walls, floors, and ceilings of houses have been made using hemp hurds mixed with natural lime and water. Sometimes plaster of Paris (pure gypsum), cement, or sand is added. The resulting material can be poured like concrete, but has a texture vaguely reminiscent of cork—much lighter than cement, and with better heat and sound-insulating properties. An experimental “ceramic tile” made of hemp has recently been produced (Fig. 27).

Fig. 26. Renovation of plaster walls of a traditional timber frame 16th century house (Mansion Raoul de la Faye, Paris) with Isochanvre® lime-hemp conglomerate. (Courtesy of M. Périer, Chènovotte Habitat, France.)
Fig. 27. Hemp “ceramic tile.” (Courtesy of Kenex Ltd., Pain Court, Ontario.)Animal BeddingThe woody core (hurds, sometimes called shives) of hemp makes remarkably good animal bedding (Fig. 28, 29). The hurds are sometimes molded into small pellets for bedding applications (Fig. 30). Such appears to be unsurpassed for horse bedding, and also make an excellent litter for cats and other pets (Fig. 31). The hurds can absorb up to five times their weight in moisture (typically 50% higher than wood shavings), do not produce dust (following initial dust removal), and are easily composted. Hemp bedding is especially suited to horses allergic to straw. In Europe, the animal bedding market is not considered important (Karus et al. 2000), but in North America there are insufficient hemp hurds available to meet market demand.

Fig. 28. Commercial warehouse of baled hemp animal bedding. (Courtesy of Kenex Ltd., Pain Court, Ontario.)
Fig. 29. Animal bedding made from hemp hurds.Fig. 30. Pelleted hemp hurds. (Courtesy of La Chanvrière de l’Aube, Bar sur Aube, France.)
Fig. 31. Songbirds on hemp litter. (Courtesy of La Chanvrière de l’Aube, Bar sur Aube, France.)The high absorbency of hemp hurds has led to their occasional use as an absorbent for oil and waste spill cleanup. Hemp as an industrial absorbent has generated some interest in Alberta, for use in land reclamation in the oil and gas industry. Because hemp hurds are a costly product, it is likely that animal bedding will remain the most important application.

Geotextiles“Geotextiles” or “agricultural textiles” include (1) ground-retaining, biodegradable matting designed to prevent soil erosion, especially to stabilize new plantings while they develop root systems along steep highway banks to prevent soil slippage (Fig. 32); and (2) ground-covers designed to reduce weeds in planting beds (in the manner of plastic mulch). At present the main materials used are polymeric (polythene, spun-blown polypropylene) and some glass fiber and natural fibers. Both woven and non-woven fibers can be applied to geotextiles; woven and knitted materials are stronger and the open structure may be advantageous (e.g. in allowing plants to grow through), but non-wovens are cheaper and better at suppressing weeds. Flax and hemp fibers exposed to water and soil have been claimed to disintegrate rapidly over the course of a few months, which would make them unacceptable for products that need to have long-term stability when exposed to water and oil. Coco (coir) fiber has been said to be much more suitable, due to higher lignin content (40%–50%, compared to 2%–5% in bast fibers); these are much cheaper than flax and hemp fibers (Karus et al. 2000). However, this analysis does not do justice to the developing hemp geotextile market. Production of hemp erosion control mats is continuing in both Europe and Canada. Given the reputation for rot resistance of hemp canvas and rope, it seems probable that ground matting is a legitimate use. Moreover, the ability to last outdoors for many years is frequently undesirable in geotextiles. For example, the widespread current use of plastic netting to reinforce grass sod is quite objectionable, the plastic persisting for many years and interfering with lawn care. Related to geotextile applications is the possibility of using hemp fiber as a planting substrate (biodegradable pots and blocks for plants), and as biodegradable twine to replace plastic ties used to attach plants to supporting poles. Still another consideration is the “green ideal” of producing locally for local needs; by this credo, hemp is preferable in temperate regions to the use of tropical fibers, which need to be imported.



Fig. 32. Hemp-based erosion control blanket. Top left: Close-up of 100% hemp fiber blanket. Top right: Grass growing through blanket. Bottom: Demonstration of installation of blanket, near La Rivière, Manitoba. (Courtesy of Mark Myrowich, ErosionControlBlanket.com)

OILSEED USESThe cultivation of hemp in the EU is heavily weighted toward fiber production over oilseed production. In 1999, the EU produced about 27,000 t of hemp fiber, but only about 6,200 t of hemp seeds, mostly in France, and 90% of this was used as animal feed (Karus et al. 2000). The seeds (Fig. 33) have traditionally been employed as bird and poultry feed, but feeding the entire seeds to livestock has been considered to be a poor investment because of the high cost involved (although subsidization in Europe allows such usage, especially in France where hemp seeds are not legally permitted in human food). As pointed out later, higher yield and better harvesting practices may make whole hempseed an economical livestock feed. Moreover, seed cake left after expressing the oil is an excellent feed. Efforts are underway in Europe to add value in the form of processed products for hemp, especially cosmetics and food but, as noted below, the North American market is already quite advanced in oilseed applications.



Fig. 33. “Seeds” (achenes) of hemp, with a match for scale.

In the EU and Canada, hemp has often been grown as a dual-purpose crop, i.e. for both fiber and oilseed. In France, dual purpose hemp is typically harvested twice—initially the upper seed-bearing part of the stems is cut and threshed with a combine, and subsequently the remaining stems are harvested. Growing hemp to the stage that mature seeds are present compromises the quality of the fiber, because of lignification. As well, the hurds become more difficult to separate. The lower quality fiber, however, is quite utilizable for pulp and non-woven usages.

In North America, oilseed hemp has several advantages over fiber hemp. Hemp seed and oil can fetch higher prices than hemp fiber. Hemp seed can be processed using existing equipment, while processing of hemp fiber usually requires new facilities and equipment.

Canada is specialized on oilseed production and processing, so that hemp oil and grain are much more suitable than fiber. Because of the extensive development of oilseeds in Canada, there is extensive capacity to produce high-quality cold-pressed hemp oil. Canada in the last 5 years has made great advances in the growing, harvesting, and processing of hempseed, and indeed has moved ahead of the EU in the development of raw materials and products for the natural foods, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics industries. In the EU, a yield of 1 t/ha is considered good. In Canada, extraordinary yields of 1.5 t/ha have been realized, at least locally, although in the initial years of hempseed development in Canada yields were often less than 500 kg/ha. In 1999, the year of largest Canadian hemp acreage, yields averaged 900 kg/ha. (Ideally, hemp seed yield should be based on air dry weight—with about 12% moisture. Hemp yields are sometime uncertain, and could be exaggerated by as much as 50% when moist weights are reported.)

Canadian experience with growing hemp commercially for the last 4 years has convinced many growers that it is better to use a single-purpose cultivar, seed or fiber, than a dual-purpose cultivar. The recent focus of Canadian hemp breeders has been to develop cultivars with high seed yields, low stature (to avoid channeling the plants’ energy into stalk, as is the case in fiber cultivars), early maturation (for the short growing seasons of Canada), and desirable fatty acid spectrum (especially gamma-linolenic acid).

FoodDehulled (i.e. hulled) hemp seed is a very recent phenomenon, first produced in quantity in Europe. Hemp seeds have been used as food since ancient times, but generally the whole seed, including the hull, was eaten. Hemp seed was a grain used in ancient China, although there has been only minor direct use of hemp seed as food by humans. In the past, hemp seed has generally been a food of the lower classes, or a famine food. Peanut-butter type preparations have been produced from hemp seed in Europe for centuries, but were rather gritty since technology for removing the hulls was rudimentary. Modern seed dehulling using mechanical separation produces a smooth, white, gritless hemp seed meal that needs no additional treatment before it is consumed. It is important to understand, therefore, that the quality of modern hemp seed for human consumption far exceeds anything produced historically. This seed meal should be distinguished from the protein-rich, oil-poor seed cake remaining after oil has been expressed, that is used for livestock feed. The seed cake is also referred to as “seed meal,” and has proven to be excellent for animals (Mustafa et al. 1999).

Hemp seeds have an attractive nutty taste, and are now incorporated into many food preparations (Fig. 34), often mimicking familiar foods. Those sold in North America include nutritional (granola-type) or snack bars, “nut butters” and other spreads, bread, pretzels, cookies, yogurts, pancakes, porridge, fruit crumble, frozen dessert (“ice cream”), pasta, burgers, pizza, salt substitute, salad dressings, mayonnaise, “cheese,” and beverages (“milk,” “lemonade,” “beer,” “wine,” “coffee nog”). Hemp seed is often found canned or vacuum-packed (Fig. 35). Alcoholic beverages made with hemp utilize hempseed as a flavorant. Hemp food products currently have a niche market, based particularly on natural food and specialty food outlets.

Fig. 34. Some North American food products made with hemp seed and/or hemp seed oil.
Fig. 35. Canned hulled hemp seed. (Courtesy of Kenex Ltd., Pain Court, Ontario.)Edible OilThe use of Cannabis for seed oil (Fig. 36) began at least 3 millennia ago. Hempseed oil is a drying oil, formerly used in paints and varnishes and in the manufacture of soap. Present cultivation of oilseed hemp is not competitive with linseed for production of oil for manufacturing, or to sunflower and canola for edible vegetable oil. However, as noted below, there are remarkable dietary advantages to hempseed oil, which accordingly has good potential for penetrating the salad oil market, and for use in a very wide variety of food products. There is also good potential for hemp oil in cosmetics and skin-care products.



Fig. 36. Hemp oil. (Courtesy of La Chanvrière de l’Aube, Bar sur Aube, France.)

Foreign sources, China in particular, can produce hemp seed cheaply, but imported seed must be sterilized, and the delays this usually requires are detrimental. Seed that has been sterilized tends to go rancid quickly, and so it is imperative that fresh seed be available, a great advantage for domestic production. An additional extremely significant advantage that domestic producers have over foreign sources is organic production, which is important for the image desired by the hemp food market. Organic certification is much more reliable in North America than in the foreign countries that offer cheap seeds. Whereas China used to supply most of the hempseed used for food in North America, Canadian-grown seeds have taken over this market.

About half of the world market for hemp oil is currently used for food and food supplements (de Guzman 2001). For edible purposes, hempseed oil is extracted by cold pressing. Quality is improved by using only the first pressing, and minimizing the number of green seeds present. The oil varies in color from off-yellow to dark green. The taste is pleasantly nutty, sometimes with a touch of bitterness. Hemp oil is high in unsaturated fatty acids (of the order of 75%), which can easily oxidize, so it is unsuitable for frying or baking. The high degree of unsaturation is responsible for the extreme sensitivity to oxidative rancidity. The oil has a relatively short shelf life. It should be extracted under nitrogen (to prevent oxidation), protected from light by being kept in dark bottles, and from heat by refrigeration. Addition of anti-oxidants prolongs the longevity of the oil. Steam sterilization of the seeds, often required by law, allows air to penetrate and so stimulates rancidity. Accordingly, sterilized or roasted hemp seeds, and products made from hemp seed that have been subjected to cooking, should be fresh. The value of hemp oil from the point of view of the primary components is discussed below. In addition, it has been suggested that other components, including trace amounts of terpenes and cannabinoids, could have health benefits (Leizer et al. 2000). According to an ancient legend (Abel 1980), Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, survived a 6-year interval of asceticism by eating nothing but one hemp seed daily. This apocryphal story holds a germ of truth—hemp seed is astonishingly nutritional.

Fatty Acids. The quality of an oil or fat is most importantly determined by its fatty acid composition. Hemp is of high nutritional quality because it contains high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, mostly oleic acid (C18:1, 10%–16%), linoleic acid (C18:2, 50%–60%), alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, 20%–25%), and gamma-linolenic acid (C18:3, 2%–5%) (Fig. 37). Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are the only two fatty acids that must be ingested and are considered essential to human health (Callaway 1998). In contrast to shorter-chain and more saturated fatty acids, these essential fatty acids do not serve as energy sources, but as raw materials for cell structure and as precursors for biosynthesis for many of the body’s regulatory biochemicals. The essential fatty acids are available in other oils, particularly fish and flaxseed, but these tend to have unpleasant flavors compared to the mellow, slightly nutty flavor of hempseed oil. While the value of unsaturated fats is generally appreciated, it is much less well known that the North American diet is serious nutritionally unbalanced by an excess of linoleic over alpha-linonenic acid. In hempseed, linoleic and alpha-linolenic occur in a ratio of about 3:1, considered optimal in healthy human adipose tissue, and apparently unique among common plant oils (Deferne and Pate 1996). Gamma-linolenic acid or GLA is another significant component of hemp oil (1%–6%, depending on cultivar). GLA is a widely consumed supplement known to affect vital metabolic roles in humans, ranging from control of inflammation and vascular tone to initiation of contractions during childbirth. GLA has been found to alleviate psoriasis, atopic eczema, and mastalgia, and may also benefit cardiovascular, psychiatric, and immunological disorders. Ageing and pathology (diabetes, hypertension, etc.) may impair GLA metabolism, making supplementation desirable. As much as 15% of the human population may benefit from addition of GLA to their diet. At present, GLA is available in health food shops and pharmacies primarily as soft gelatin capsules of borage or evening primrose oil, but hemp is almost certainly a much more economic source. Although the content of GLA in the seeds is lower, hemp is far easier to cultivate and higher-yielding. It is important to note that hemp is the only current natural food source of GLA, i.e. not requiring the consumption of extracted dietary supplements. There are other fatty acids in small concentrations in hemp seed that have some dietary significance, including stearidonic acid (Callaway et al. 1996) and eicosenoic acid (Mölleken and Theimer 1997). Because of the extremely desirable fatty acid constitution of hemp oil, it is now being marketed as a dietary supplement in capsule form (Fig. 38).

Fig. 37. Content of principal fatty acids in hempseed oil, based on means of 62 accessions grown in southern Ontario (reported in Small and Marcus 2000).
Fig. 38. Hemp oil in capsule form sold as a dietary supplement.Tocopherols. Tocopherols are major antioxidants in human serum. Alpha- beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol represent the vitamin E group. These fat-soluble vitamins are essential for human nutrition, especially the alpha-form, which is commonly called vitamin E. About 80% of the tocopherols of hempseed oil is the alpha form. The vitamin E content of hempseed is comparatively high. Antioxidants in hempseed oil are believed to stabilize the highly polyunsaturated oil, tending to keep it from going rancid. Sterols in the seeds probably serve the same function, and like the tocopherols are also desirable from a human health viewpoint.

Protein. Hemp seeds contain 25%–30% protein, with a reasonably complete amino acid spectrum. About two thirds of hempseed protein is edestin. All eight amino acids essential in the human diet are present, as well as others. Although the protein content is smaller than that of soybean, it is much higher than in grains like wheat, rye, maize, oat, and barley. As noted above, the oilcake remaining after oil is expressed from the seeds is a very nutritious feed supplement for livestock, but it can also be used for production of a high-protein flour.

Personal Care ProductsIn the 1990s, European firms introduced lines of hemp oil-based personal care products, including soaps, shampoos, bubble baths, and perfumes. Hemp oil is now marketed throughout the world in a range of body care products, including creams, lotions, moisturizers, and lip balms. In Germany, a laundry detergent manufactured entirely from hemp oil has been marketed. Hemp-based cosmetics and personal care products account for about half of the world market for hemp oil (de Guzman 2001).

One of the most significant developments for the North American hemp industry was investment in hemp products by Anita and Gordon Roddick, founders of The Body Shop, a well known international chain of hair and body care retailers. This was a rather courageous and principled move that required overcoming American legal obstacles related to THC content. The Body Shop now markets an impressive array of hemp nutraceutical cosmetics (Fig. 39), and this has given the industry considerable credibility. The Body Shop has reported gross sales of about a billion dollars annually, and that about 4% of sales in 2000 were hemp products.



Fig. 39. Body care products offered by the Body Shop. (“Chanvre” is French for hemp.)

Industrial FluidsThe vegetable oils have been classified by “iodine value” as drying (120–200), semi-drying (100–120), and non-drying (80–100), which is determined by the degree of saturation of the fatty acids present (Raie et al. 1995). Good coating materials prepared from vegetable oil depend on the nature and number of double bonds present in the fatty acids. Linseed oil, a drying oil, has a very high percentage of linolenic acid. Hempseed oil has been classified as a semi-drying oil, like soybean oil, and is therefore more suited to edible than industrial oil purposes. Nevertheless hemp oil has found applications in the past in paints, varnishes, sealants, lubricants for machinery, and printing inks. However, such industrial end uses are not presently feasible as the oil is considered too expensive (de Guzman 2001). Larger production volumes and lower prices may be possible, in which case hemp oil may find industrial uses similar to those of linseed (flax), soybean, and sunflower oils, which are presently used in paints, inks, solvents, binders, and in polymer plastics. Hemp shows a remarkable range of variation in oil constituents, and selection for oilseed cultivars with high content of valued industrial constituents is in progress.

MEDICINAL MARIJUANAMarijuana has in fact been grown for medicinal research in North America by both the Canadian (Fig. 40) and American governments, and this will likely continue. The possibility of marijuana becoming a legal commercial crop in North America is, to say the least, unlikely in the foreseeable future. Nevertheless the private sector is currently producing medicinal marijuana in Europe and Canada, so the following orientation to marijuana as a potential authorized crop is not merely academic.



Fig. 40. A truckload of Canadian medicinal marijuana from a plantation in Ottawa in 1971. More than a ton of marijuana was prepared for experimental research (described in Small et al. 1975).

The objectivity of scientific evaluation of the medicinal value of marijuana to date has been questioned. In the words of Hirst et al. (1998): “The ...status of cannabis has made modern clinical research almost impossible. This is primarily because of the legal, ethical and bureaucratic difficulties in conducting trials with patients. Additionally, the general attitude towards cannabis, in which it is seen only as a drug of abuse and addiction, has not helped.” In a recent editorial, the respected journal Nature (2001) stated: “Governments, including the US federal government, have until recently refused to sanction the medical use of marijuana, and have also done what they can to prevent its clinical testing. They have defended their inaction by claiming that either step would signal to the public a softening of the so-called ‘war on drugs.’... The pharmacology of cannabinoids is a valid field of scientific investigation. Pharmacologists have the tools and the methodologies to realize its considerable potential, provided the political climate permits them to do so.” Given these current demands for research on medicinal marijuana, it will be necessary to produce crops of drug types of C. sativa.

Earliest reference to euphoric use of C. sativa appears to date to China of 5 millennia ago, but it was in India over the last millennium that drug consumption became more firmly entrenched than anywhere else in the world. Not surprisingly, the most highly domesticated drug strains were selected in India. While C. sativa has been used as a euphoriant in India, the Near East, parts of Africa, and other Old World areas for thousands of years, such use simply did not develop in temperate countries where hemp was raised. The use of C. sativa as a recreational inebriant in sophisticated, largely urban settings is substantially a 20th century phenomenon.

Cannabis drug preparations have been employed medicinally in folk medicine since antiquity, and were extensively used in western medicine between the middle of the 19th century and World War II, particularly as a substitute for opiates (Mikuriya 1969). A bottle of commercial medicinal extract is shown in Fig. 41. Medical use declined with the introduction of synthetic analgesics and sedatives, and there is very limited authorized medical use today, but considerable unauthorized use, including so-called “compassion clubs” dispensing marijuana to gravely ill people, which has led to a momentous societal and scientific debate regarding the wisdom of employing cannabis drugs medically, given the illicit status. There is anecdotal evidence that cannabis drugs are useful for: alleviating nausea, vomiting, and anorexia following radiation therapy and chemotherapy; as an appetite stimulant for AIDS patients; for relieving the tremors of multiple sclerosis and epilepsy; and for pain relief, glaucoma, asthma, and other ailments [see Mechoulam and Hanus (1997) for an authoritative medical review, and Pate (1995) for a guide to the medical literature]. To date, governmental authorities in the US, on the advice of medical experts, have consistently rejected the authorization of medical use of marijuana except in a handful of cases. However, in the UK medicinal marijuana is presently being produced sufficient to supply thousands of patients, and Canada recently authorized the cultivation of medicinal marijuana for compassionate dispensation, as well as for a renewed effort at medical evaluation.



Fig. 41. Medicinal tincture of Cannabis sativa. (Not legal in North America.)

Several of the cannabinoids are reputed to have medicinal potential: THC for glaucoma, spasticity from spinal injury or multiple sclerosis, pain, inflammation, insomnia, and asthma; CBD for some psychological problems. The Netherlands firm HortaPharm developed strains of Cannabis rich in particular cannabinoids. The British firm G.W. Pharmaceuticals acquired proprietary access to these for medicinal purposes, and is developing medicinal marijuana. In the US, NIH (National Institute of Health) has a program of research into medicinal marijuana, and has supplied a handful of individuals for years with maintenance samples for medical usage. The American Drug Enforcement Administration is hostile to the medicinal use of Cannabis, and for decades research on medicinal properties of Cannabis in the US has been in an extremely inhospitable climate, except for projects and researchers concerned with curbing drug abuse. Synthetic preparations of THC—dronabinol (Marinol®) and nabilone (Cesamet®)—are permitted in some cases, but are expensive and widely considered to be less effective than simply smoking preparations of marijuana. Relatively little material needs to be cultivated for medicinal purposes (Small 1971), although security considerations considerably inflate costs. The potential as a “new crop” for medicinal cannabinoid uses is therefore limited. However, the added-value potential in the form of proprietary drug derivatives and drug-delivery systems is huge. The medicinal efficacy of Cannabis is extremely controversial, and regrettably is often confounded with the issue of balancing harm and liberty concerning the proscriptions against recreational use of marijuana. This paper is principally concerned with the industrial uses of Cannabis. In this context, the chief significance of medicinal Cannabis is that, like the issue of recreational use, it has made it very difficult to rationally consider the development of industrial hemp in North America for purposes that everyone should agree are not harmful.

Key analyses of the medicinal use of marijuana are: Le Dain (1972), Health Council of the Netherlands (1996), American Medical Association (1997), British Medical Association (1997), National Institutes of Health (1997), World Health Organization (1997), House of Lords (1998), and Joy et al. (1999).

MINOR USESBiomassIt has been contended that hemp is notably superior to most crops in terms of biomass production, but van der Werf (1994b) noted that the annual dry matter yield of hemp (rarely approaching 20 t/ha) is not exceptional compared to maize, beet, or potato. Nevertheless, hemp has been rated on a variety of criteria as one of the best crops available to produce energy in Europe (Biewinga and van der Bijl 1996). Hemp, especially the hurds, can be burned as is or processed into charcoal, methanol, methane, or gasoline through pyrolysis (destructive distillation). As with maize, hemp can also be used to create ethanol. However, hemp for such biomass purposes is a doubtful venture in North America. Conversion of hemp biomass into fuel or alcohol is impractical on this continent, where there are abundant supplies of wood, and energy can be produced relatively cheaply from a variety of sources. Mallik et al. (1990) studied the possibility of using hemp for “biogas” (i.e. methane) production, and concluded that it was unsuitable for this purpose. Pinfold Consulting (1998) concluded that while there may be some potential for hemp biomass fuel near areas where hemp is cultivated, “a fuel ethanol industry is not expected to develop based on hemp.”

Essential OilEssential (volatile) oil in hemp is quite different from hempseed oil. Examples of commercial essential oil product products are shown in Fig. 42. The essential oil is a mixture of volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and other terpenoid-like compounds that are manufactured in the same epidermal glands in which the resin ofCannabis is synthesized (Meier and Mediavilla 1998). Yields are very small—about 10 L/ha (Mediavilla and Steinemann 1997), so essential oil of C. sativa is expensive, and today is simply a novelty. Essential oil of different strains varies considerably in odor, and this may have economic importance in imparting a scent to cosmetics, shampoos, soaps, creams, oils, perfumes, and foodstuffs. Switzerland has been a center for the production of essential oil for the commercial market. Narcotic strains tend to be more attractive in odor than fiber strains, and because they produce much higher numbers of flowers than fiber strains, and the (female) floral parts provide most of the essential oil, narcotic strains are naturally adapted to essential oil production. Switzerland has permitted strains with higher THC content to be grown than is allowed in other parts of the world, giving the country an advantage with respect to the essential oil market. However, essential oil in the marketplace has often been produced from low-THC Cannabis, and the THC content of essential oil obtained by steam distillation can be quite low, producing a product satisfying the needs for very low THC levels in food and other commercial goods. The composition of extracted essential oil is quite different from the volatiles released around the fresh plant (particularly limonene and alpha-pinene), so that a pleasant odor of the living plant is not necessarily indicative of a pleasant-smelling essential oil. Essential oil has been produced in Canada by Gen-X Research Inc., Regina. The world market for hemp essential oil is very limited at present, and probably also has limited growth potential.



Fig. 42. Bottles of hemp fragrance (left) and essential oil (center), and pastilles flavored with hemp essential oil (right).

Pesticide and Repellent PotentialMcPartland (1997) reviewed research on the pesticide and repellent applications of Cannabis. Dried plant parts and extracts of Cannabis have received rather extensive usage for these purposes in the past, raising the possibility that research could produce formulations of commercial value. This possibility is currently hypothetical.

Non-Seed Use of Hemp as Livestock FeedAs noted above, hemp seed cake makes an excellent feed for animals. However, feeding entire plants is another matter, because the leaves are covered with the resin-producing glands. While deer, groundhogs, rabbits, and other mammals will nibble on hemp plants, mammals generally do not choose to eat hemp. Jain and Arora (1988) fed narcotic Cannabis refuse to cattle, and found that the animals “suffered variable degrees of depression and revealed incoordination in movement.” By contrast, Letniak et al. (2000) conducted an experimental trial of hemp as silage. No significant differences were found between yield of the hemp and of barley/oat silage fed to heifers, suggesting that fermenting hemp plants reduces possible harmful constituents.

Hemp as an Agricultural BarrierOne of the most curious uses of hemp is as a fence to prevent pollen transfer in commercial production of seeds. Isolation distances for ensuring that seeds produced are pure are considerable for many plants, and often impractical. At one point in the 1980s, the only permitted use of hemp in Germany was as a fence or hedge to prevent plots of beets being used for seed production from being contaminated by pollen from ruderal beets. The high and rather inpenetrable hedge that hemp can produce was considered unsurpassed by any other species for the purpose. As well, the sticky leaves of hemp were thought to trap pollen. However, Saeglitz et al. (2000) demonstrated that the spread of beet pollen is not effectively prevented by hemp hedges. Fiber (i.e. tall) cultivars of hemp were also once used in Europe as wind-breaks, protecting vulnerable crops against wind damage. Although hemp plants can lodge, on the whole very tall hemp is remarkably resistant against wind.

BioremediationPreliminary work in Germany (noted in Karus and Leson 1994) suggested that hemp could be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals, while the fiber remained virtually free of the metals. Kozlowski et al. (1995) observed that hemp grew very well on copper-contaminated soil in Poland (although seeds absorbed high levels of copper). Baraniecki (1997) found similar results. Mölleken et al. (1997) studied effects of high concentration of salts of copper, chromium, and zinc on hemp, and demonstrated that some hemp cultivars have potential application to growth in contaminated soils. It would seem unwise to grow hemp as an oilseed on contaminated soils, but such a habitat might be suitable for a fiber or biomass crop. The possibility of using hemp for bioremediation deserves additional study.

Wildlife UsesHemp is plagued by bird predation, which take a heavy toll on seed production. The seeds are well known to provide extremely nutritious food for both wild birds and domestic fowl. Hunters and birdwatchers who discover wild patches of hemp often keep this information secret, knowing that the area will be a magnet for birds in the fall when seed maturation occurs. Increasingly in North America, plants are being established to provide habitat and food for wildlife. Hemp is not an aggressive weed, and certainly has great potential for being used as a wildlife plant. Of course, current conditions forbid such usage in North America.

Ornamental FormsHemp has at times in the past been grown simply for its ornamental value. The short, strongly-branched cultivar ‘Panorama’ (Fig. 43) bred by Iván Bósca, the dean of the world’s living hemp breeders, was commercialized in Hungary in the 1980s, and has been said to be the only ornamental hemp cultivar available. It has had limited success, of course, because there are very few circumstances that permit private gardeners can grow Cannabis as an ornamental today. By contrast, beautiful ornamental cultivars of opium poppy are widely cultivated in home gardens across North America, despite their absolute illegality and the potentially draconian penalties that could be imposed. Doubtless in the unlikely event that it became possible, many would grow hemp as an ornamental.



Fig. 43. ‘Panorama,’ the world’s only ornamental cultivar, with the breeder, Ivan Bócsa. (Courtesy of Professor Bócsa.)

AGRONOMYThe following sketch of hemp cultivation is insufficient to address all of the practical problems that are encountered by hemp growers. Bócsa and Karus (1998) is the best overall presentation of hemp growing available in English. The reader is warned that this book, as well as almost all of the literature on hemp, is very much more concerned with fiber production than oilseed production. McPartland et al. (2000) is the best presentation available on diseases and pests, which fortunately under most circumstances do limited damage. The resource list presented below should be consulted by those wishing to learn about hemp production. Provincial agronomists in Canada now have experience with hemp, and can make local recommendations. Particularly good web documents are: for Ontario (OMAFRA Hemp Series, several documents): www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/english/crops/hort/hemp.html); for Manitoba (several documents): www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/hemp/bko01s00.html; for British Columbia: (BC Ministry of Agriculture and Foods Fact Sheet on Industrial Hemp, prepared by A. Oliver and H. Joynt): www.agf.gov.bc.ca/croplive/plant/horticult/specialty/specialty.htm

In the US, extension publications produced up to the end of World War II are still useful, albeit outdated (Robinson 1935; Wilsie et al. 1942; Hackleman and Domingo 1943; Wilsie et al. 1944).

Hemp does best on a loose, well-aerated loam soil with high fertility and abundant organic matter. Well-drained clay soils can be used, but poorly-drained clay soils are very inappropriate because of their susceptibility to compaction, which is not tolerated. Young plants are sensitive to wet or flooded soils, so that hemp must have porous, friable, well-drained soils. Sandy soils will grow good hemp, provided that adequate irrigation and fertilization are provided, but doing so generally makes production uneconomical. Seedbed preparation requires considerable effort. Fall plowing is recommended, followed by careful preparation of a seedbed in the spring. The seedbed should be fine, level, and firm. Seed is best planted at 2–3 cm (twice as deep will be tolerated). Although the seedlings will germinate and survive at temperatures just above freezing, soil temperatures of 8°–10°C are preferable. Generally hemp should be planted after danger of hard freezes, and slightly before the planting date of maize. Good soil moisture is necessary for seed germination, and plenty of rainfall is needed for good growth, especially during the first 6 weeks. Seeding rate is specific to each variety, and this information should be sought from the supplier. Fiber strains are typically sown at a minimum rate of 250 seeds per m2 (approximately 45 kg/ha), and up to three times this density is sometimes recommended. In western Europe, seeding rates range from 60–70 kg/ha for fiber cultivars. Recommendations for seeding rates for grain production vary widely, from 10–45 kg/ha. Densities for seed production for tall, European, dual-purpose cultivars are less than for short oilseed cultivars. Low plant densities, as commonly found in growing tall European cultivars for seed, may not suppress weed growth adequately, and under these circumstances resort to herbicides may pose a problem for those wishing to grow hempseed organically. Hemp requires about the same fertility as a high-yielding crop of wheat. Industrial hemp grows well in areas that corn produces high yields. Growing hemp may require addition of up to 110 kg/ha of nitrogen, and 40–90 kg/ha of potash. Hemp particularly requires good nitrogen fertilization, more so for seed production than fiber. Adding nitrogen when it is not necessary is deleterious to fiber production, so that knowledge of the fertility of soils being used is very important. Organic matter is preferably over 3.5%, phosphorus should be medium to high (>40 ppm), potassium should be medium to high (>250 ppm), sulfur good (>5,000 ppm), and calcium not in excess (<6,000 ppm).

Finding cultivars suited to local conditions is a key to success. Hemp prefers warm growing conditions, and the best European fiber strains are photoperiodically adapted to flowering in southern Europe, which provides seasons of at least 4 months for fiber, and 5.5 months for seed production. Asian land races are similarly adapted to long seasons. In Canada, many of the available cultivars flower too late in the season for fiber production, and the same may be predicted for the northern US. Fiber production should also be governed by availability of moisture throughout the season, and the need for high humidity in the late summer and fall for retting, so that large areas of the interior and west of North America are not adapted to growing fiber hemp. The US Corn Belt has traditionally been considered to be best for fiber hemp. There are very few cultivars dedicated to oilseed production (such as ‘Finola’ and ‘Anka’) or that at least are known to produce good oilseed crops (such as ‘Fasamo’ and ‘Uniko-B’). Oilseed production was a specialty of the USSR, and there is some likelihood that northern regions of North America may find short-season, short-stature oilseed cultivars ideal.

Although hemp can be successfully grown continuously for several years on the same land, rotation with other crops is desirable. A 3- or preferably 4-year rotation may involve cereals, clover or alfalfa for green manure, maize, and hemp. In Ontario it has been recommended that hemp not follow canola, edible beans, soybeans or sunflowers. However, according to Bócsa and Karus (1998), “it matters little what crops are grown prior to hemp.”

For a fiber crop, hemp is cut in the early flowering stage or while pollen is being shed, well before seeds are set. Tall European cultivars (greater than 2 m) have mostly been grown in Canada to date, and most of these are photoperiodically adapted to mature late in the season (often too late). Small crops have been harvested with sickle-bar mowers and hay swathers, but plugging of equipment is a constant problem. Hemp fibers tend to wrap around combine belts, bearings, indeed any moving part, and have resulted in large costs of combine repairs (estimated at $10.00/ha). Slower operation of conventional combines has been recommended (0.6–2 ha/hour). Large crops may require European specialized equipment, but experience in North America with crops grown mainly for fiber is limited. The Dutch company HempFlax has developed or adapted several kinds of specialized harvesting equipment (Fig. 44, 45).

Fig. 44. A John Deere Kemper harvester, with circular drums that cut and chop hemp stalks, shown in operation in southern Ontario. (Courtesy of Kenex Ltd., Pain Court, Ontario.)
Fig. 45. A hemp harvester operated by HempFlax (Netherlands), with a wide mowing head capable of cutting 3 m long stems into 0.6 m pieces, at a capacity of 3 ha/hour. (Courtesy of HempFlax, Oude Pekela, The Netherlands.)Retting is generally done in the field (Fig. 46, 47). This typically requires weeks. The windrows should be turned once or twice. If not turned, the stems close to the ground will remain green while the top ones are retted and turn brown. When the stalks have become sufficiently retted requires experience—the fibers should have turned golden or grayish in color, and should separate easily from the interior wood. Baling can be done with any kind of baler (Fig. 48). Stalks should have less than 15% moisture when baled, and should be allowed to dry to about 10% in storage. Bales must be stored indoors. Retted stalks are loosely held together, and for highest quality fiber applications need to be decorticated, scutched, hackled, and combed to remove the remaining pieces of stalks, broken fibers, and extraneous material. The equipment for this is rare in North America, and consequently use of domestically-produced fiber for high quality textile applications is extremely limited. However, as described above relatively crude fiber preparations also have applications.

Fig. 46. Windrowed fiber hemp in process of dew retting. Photograph taken in 1930 on the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada.
Fig. 47. Shocked fiber hemp in process of dew retting. Photograph taken in 1931, near Ottawa, Canada. The shocks shed water like pup-tents, providing more even retting than windrows.

Fig. 48. Baled, retted hemp straw. (Courtesy of Kenex Ltd., Pain Court, Ontario.)

Harvesting tall varieties for grain is difficult. In France, the principal grower of dual-purpose varieties, the grain is taken off the field first, leaving most of the stalks for later harvest (Fig. 49). Putting tall whole plants through a conventional combine results in the straw winding around moving parts, and the fibers working into bearings, causing breakdown, fires, high maintenance, and frustration. Following the French example of raising the cutting blade to harvest the grain is advisable. Growing short varieties dedicated to grain production eliminates many of the above problems, and since the profitability of hemp straw is limited at present, seems preferable. Grain growers should be aware that flocks of voracious birds are a considerable source of damage to hempseed, particularly in small plantations.



Fig. 49. Harvesting hemp in France. (Courtesy of La Chanvrière de l’Aube, Bar sur Aube, France.)

ECOLOGICAL FRIENDLINESS OF HEMPAlthough the environmental and biodiversity benefits of growing hemp have been greatly exaggerated in the popular press, C. sativa is nevertheless exceptionally suitable for organic agriculture, and is remarkably less “ecotoxic” in comparison to most other crops (Montford and Small 1999b). Figure 50 presents a comparison of the ecological friendliness of Cannabis crops (fiber, oilseed, and narcotics) and 21 of the world’s major crops, based on 26 criteria used by Montford and Small (1999a) to compare the ecological friendliness of crops.



Fig. 50. A crude comparison of the biodiversity friendliness of selected major crops and three Cannabis sativa crops (fiber, oilseed, drug) based on 26 criteria (after Montford and Small 1999a).

The most widespread claim for environmental friendliness of hemp is that it has the potential to save trees that otherwise would be harvested for production of lumber and pulp. Earlier, the limitations of hemp as a pulp substitute were examined. With respect to wood products, several factors appear to favor increased use of wood substitutes, especially agricultural fibers such as hemp. Deforestation, particularly the destruction of old growth forests, and the world’s decreasing supply of wild timber resources are today major ecological concerns. Agroforestry using tree species is one useful response, but nevertheless sacrifices wild lands and biodiversity, and is less preferable than sustainable wildland forestry. The use of agricultural residues (e.g. straw bales in house construction) is an especially environmentally friendly solution to sparing trees, but material limitations restrict use. Another chief advantage of several annual fiber crops over forestry crops is relative productivity, annual fiber crops sometimes producing of the order of four times as much per unit of land. Still another important advantage is the precise control over production quantities and schedule that is possible with annual crops. In many parts of the world, tree crops are simply not a viable alternative. “By the turn of the century 3 billion people may live in areas where wood is cut faster than it grows or where fuelwood is extremely scarce” (World Commission on Environment and Development 1987). “Since mid-century, lumber use has tripled, paper use has increased six-fold, and firewood use has soared as Third World populations have multiplied” (Brown et al. 1998). Insofar as hemp reduces the need to harvest trees for building materials or other products, its use as a wood substitute will tend to contribute to preserving biodiversity. Hemp may also enhance forestry management by responding to short-term fiber demand while trees reach their ideal maturation. In developing countries where fuelwood is becoming increasingly scarce and food security is a concern, the introduction of a dual-purpose crop such as hemp to meet food, shelter, and fuel needs may contribute significantly to preserving biodiversity.

The most valid claims to environmental friendliness of hemp are with respect to agricultural biocides (pesticides, fungicides, herbicides). Cannabis sativa is known to be exceptionally resistant to pests (Fig. 51), although, the degree of immunity to attacking organisms has been greatly exaggerated, with several insects and fungi specializing on hemp. Despite this, use of pesticides and fungicides on hemp is usually unnecessary, although introduction of hemp to regions should be expected to generate local problems.Cannabis sativa is also relatively resistant to weeds, and so usually requires relatively little herbicide. Fields intended for hemp use are still frequently normally cleared of weeds using herbicides, but so long as hemp is thickly seeded (as is always done when hemp is grown for fiber), the rapidly developing young plants normally shade out competing weeds.



Fig. 51. Grasshopper on hemp. Most insects cause only limited damage to hemp, and substantial insect damage is uncommon, so the use of insecticides is very rarely required.

BREEDING HEMP FOR NORTH AMERICAThe basic commercial options for growing hemp in North America is as a fiber plant, an oilseed crop, or for dual harvest for both seeds and fiber. Judged on experience in Canada to date, the industry is inclined to specialize on either fiber or grain, but not both. Hemp in our opinion is particularly suited to be developed as an oilseed crop in North America. The first and foremost breeding goal is to decrease the price of hempseed by creating more productive cultivars. While the breeding of hemp fiber cultivars has proceeded to the point that only slight improvements can be expected in productivity in the future, the genetic potential of hemp as an oilseed has scarcely been addressed. From the point of view of world markets, concentrating on oilseed hemp makes sense, because Europe has shown only limited interest to date in developing oilseed hemp, whereas a tradition of concentrating on profitable oilseed products is already well established in the US and Canada. Further, China’s supremacy in the production of high-quality hemp textiles at low prices will be very difficult to match, while domestic production of oilseeds can be carried out using technology that is already available. The present productivity of oilseed hemp—about 1 t/ha under good conditions, and occasional reports of 1.5 to 2 t/ha, is not yet sufficient for the crop to become competitive with North America’s major oilseeds. We suggest that an average productivity of 2 t/ha will be necessary to transform hempseed into a major oilseed, and that this breeding goal is achievable. At present, losses of 30% of the seed yields are not uncommon, so that improvements in harvesting technology should also contribute to higher yields. Hemp food products cannot escape their niche market status until the price of hempseed rivals that of other oilseeds, particularly rapeseed, flax, and sunflower. Most hemp breeding that has been conducted to date has been for fiber characteristics, so that there should be considerable improvement possible. The second breeding goal is for larger seeds, as these are more easily shelled. Third is breeding for specific seed components. Notable are the health-promoting gamma-linolenic acid; improving the amino acid spectrum of the protein; and increasing the antioxidant level, which would not only have health benefits but could increase the shelf life of hemp oil and foods.

Germplasm ResourcesGermplasm for the improvement of hemp is vital for the future of the industry in North America. However, there are no publicly available germplasm banks housing C. sativa in North America. The hundreds of seed collections acquired for Small’s studies (reviewed in Small 1979) were destroyed in 1980 because Canadian government policy at that time envisioned no possibility that hemp would ever be developed as a legitimate crop. An inquiry regarding the 56 United States Department of Agriculture hemp germplasm collections supplied to and grown by Small and Beckstead (1973) resulted in the reply that there are no remaining hemp collections in USDA germplasm holdings, and indeed that were such to be found they would have to be destroyed. While hemp has been and still is cultivated in Asia and South America, it is basically in Europe that germplasm banks have made efforts to preserve hemp seeds. The Vavilov Institute of Plant Research in St. Petersburg, Russia has by far the largest germplasm collection of hemp of any public gene bank, with about 500 collections. Detailed information on the majority of hemp accessions of the Vavilov Institute can be found in Anon. (1975). Budgetary problems in Russia have endangered the survival of this invaluable collection, and every effort needs to be made to find new funding to preserve it. Maintenance and seed generation issues for the Vavilov hemp germplasm collection are discussed in a number of articles in the Journal of the International Hemp Association (Clarke 1998b; Lemeshev et al. 1993, 1994). The Gatersleben gene bank of Germany, the 2nd largest public gene bank in Europe, has a much smaller Cannabis collection, with less than 40 accessions (detailed information on the hemp accessions of the Gatersleben gene bank are available at fox-serv.ipk-gatersleben.de/). Because hemp is regaining its ancient status as an important crop, a number of private germplasm collections have been assembled for the breeding of cultivars as commercial ventures (de Meijer and van Soest 1992; de Meijer 1998), and of course these are available only on a restricted basis, if at all.

The most pressing need of the hemp industry in North America is for the breeding of more productive oilseed cultivars. At present, mainly European cultivars are available, of which very few are suitable for specialized oilseed production. More importantly, hempseed oil is not competitive, except in the novelty niche market, with the popular food oils. As argued above, to be competitive, hemp should produce approximately 2 t/ha; at present 1 t/ha is considered average to good production. Doubling the productive capacity of a conventional crop would normally be considered impossible, but it needs to be understood just how little hemp has been developed as an oilseed. There may not even be extant land races of the kind of hemp oilseed strains that were once grown in Russia, so that except for a very few very recent oilseed cultivars, there has been virtually no breeding of oilseed hemp. Contrarily, hemp has been selected for fiber to the point that some breeders consider its productivity in this respect has already been maximized. Fiber strains have been selected for low seed production, so that most hemp germplasm has certainly not been selected for oilseed characteristics. By contrast, drug varieties have been selected for very high yield of flowers, and accordingly produce very high yield of seeds. Drug varieties have been observed to produce more than a kilogram of seed per plant, so that a target yield of several tonnes per hectare is conceivable (Watson and Clarke 1997). Of course, the high THC in drug cultivars makes these a difficult source of germplasm. However, wild plants of C. sativa have naturally undergone selection for high seed productivity, and are a particularly important potential source of breeding germplasm.

Wild North American hemp is derived mostly from escaped European cultivated hemp imported in past centuries, perhaps especially from a revival of cultivation during World War II. Wild Canadian hemp is concentrated along the St. Lawrence and lower Great Lakes, where considerable cultivation occurred in the 1800s. In the US, wild hemp is best established in the American Midwest and Northeast, where hemp was grown historically in large amounts. Decades of eradication have exterminated many of the naturalized populations in North America. In the US, wild plants are rather contemptuously called “ditch weed” by law enforcement personnel. However, the attempts to destroy the wild populations are short-sighted, because they are a natural genetic reservoir, mostly low in THC. Wild North American plants have undergone many generations of natural adaptation to local conditions of climate, soil and pests, and accordingly it is safe to conclude that they harbor genes that are invaluable for the improvement of hemp cultivars. We have encountered exceptionally vigorous wild Canadian plants (Fig. 52), and grown wild plants from Europe (Fig. 53) which could prove valuable. Indeed, studies are in progress in Ontario to evaluate the agronomic usefulness of wild North American hemp. Nevertheless, present policies in North America require the eradication of wild hemp wherever encountered. In Europe and Asia, there is little concern about wild hemp, which remains a valuable resource.

Fig. 52. Wild female hemp plant collected Oct. 17, 2000 near Ottawa, Canada. This vigorous plant had a fresh weight of 1.5 kg.
Fig. 53. A wild female hemp plant grown in southern Ontario [accession #16 from Georgia (formerly USSR), reported in Small and Marcus (2000)]. Such highly-branched plants can produce very large quantities of seeds, and may be useful for breeding.HARD LESSONS FOR FARMERSIt is clear that there is a culture of idealistic believers in hemp in North America, and that there is great determination to establish the industry. As history has demonstrated, unbridled enthusiasm for largely untested new crops touted as gold mines sometimes leads to disaster. The attempt to raise silk in the US is probably the most egregious example. In 1826 a Congressional report that recommended the preparation of a practical manual on the industry resulted in a contagious desire to plant mulberries for silk production, with the eventual collapse of the industry, the loss of fortunes, and a legacy of “Mulberry Streets” in the US (Chapter 2, Bailey 1898). In the early 1980s in Minnesota, Jerusalem artichoke was touted as a fuel, a feed, a food, and a sugar crop. Unfortunately there was no market for the new “wonder crop” and hundreds of farmers lost about $20 million (Paarlberg 1990). The level of “hype” associated with industrial hemp is far more than has been observed before for other new crops (Pinfold Consulting 1998). Probably more so than any plant in living memory, hemp attracts people to attempt its cultivation without first acquiring a realistic appreciation of the possible pitfalls. American presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson encouraged the cultivation of hemp, but both lost money trying to grow it. Sadly in Canada in 1999 numerous farmers contracted to grow half of Canada’s crop area for hemp for the American-based Consolidated Growers and Processors, and with the collapse of the firm were left holding very large amounts of unmarketable grain and baled hemp straw. This has represented a most untimely setback for a fledgling industry, but at least has had a sobering effect on investing in hemp. In this section we emphasize why producers should exercise caution before getting into hemp.

In Europe and Asia, hemp farming has been conducted for millennia. Although most countries ceased growing hemp after the second word war, some didn’t, including France, China, Russia, and Hungary, so that essential knowledge of how to grow and process hemp was maintained. When commercial hemp cultivation resumed in Canada in 1997, many farmers undertook to grow the crop without appreciating its suitability for their situation, or for the hazards of an undeveloped market. Hemp was often grown on farms with marginal incomes in the hopes that it was a savior from a downward financial spiral. The myth that hemp is a wonder crop that can be grown on any soil led some to cultivate on soils with a history of producing poor crops; of course, a poor crop was the result.

Market considerations also heavily determine the wisdom of investing in hemp. Growing hemp unfortunately has a magnetic attraction to many, so there is danger of overproduction. A marketing board could be useful to prevent unrestrained competition and price fluctuations, but is difficult to establish when the industry is still very small. As noted above, unwise investment in Canada produced a glut of seeds that resulted in price dumping and unprofitable levels for the majority. Cultural and production costs of hemp have been said to be comparable to those for corn, and while the truth of this remains to be confirmed, the legislative burden that accompanies hemp puts the crop at a unique disadvantage. Among the problems that Canadian farmers have faced are the challenge of government licensing (some delays, and a large learning curve), very expensive and sometime poor seed (farmers are not allowed to generate their own seed), teenagers raiding fields in the mistaken belief that marijuana is being grown, and great difficulties in exportation because of the necessity of convincing authorities that hemp is not a narcotic. Unless the producer participates in sharing of value-added income, large profits are unlikely. The industry widely recognizes that value added to the crop is the chief potential source of profit, as indeed for most other crops.

THE POLITICS OF CANNABIS WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE USCannabis has long had an image problem, because of the extremely widespread use of “narcotic” cultivars as illegal intoxicants. The US Drug Enforcement Administration has the mandate of eliminating illicit and wild marijuana, which it does very well (Fig. 54–56). Those interested in establishing and developing legitimate industries based on fiber and oilseed applications have had to struggle against considerable opposition from many in the political and law enforcement arenas. The United States National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) information web site on marijuana, which reflects a negative view of cannabis, is at www.nida.nih.gov/DrugPages/Marijuana.html, and reflects several basic fears: (1) growing Cannabis plants makes law enforcement more difficult, because of the need to ensure that all plants cultivated are legitimate; (2) utilization of legitimate Cannabisproducts makes it much more difficult to maintain the image of the illegitimate products as dangerous; (3) many in the movements backing development of hemp are doing so as a subterfuge to promote legalization of recreational use of marijuana; and (4) THC (and perhaps other constituents) in Cannabis are so harmful that their presence in any amount in any material (food, medicine or even fiber product) represents a health hazard that is best dealt with by a total proscription.

Fig. 54. The war on drugs: helicopter spraying of Paraquat herbicide on field of marijuana. (Courtesy US Drug Enforcement Administration.)
Fig. 55. The war on drugs: clandestine indoor marijuana cultivation. (Courtesy US Drug Enforcement Administration.)

Fig. 56. The war on drugs: burning seized marijuana. (Courtesy US Drug Enforcement Administration.)

Ten years ago hemp cultivation was illegal in Germany, England, Canada, Australia, and other countries. Essential to overcoming governmental reluctance in each country was the presentation of an image that was business-oriented, and conservative. The merits of environmentalism have acquired some political support, but unless there is a reasonable possibility that hemp cultivation is perceived as potentially economically viable, there is limited prospect of having anti-hemp laws changed. Strong support from business and farm groups is indispensable; support from pro-marijuana interests and what are perceived of as fringe groups is generally counterproductive. It is a combination of prospective economic benefit coupled with assurance that hemp cultivation will not detrimentally affect the enforcement of marijuana legislation that has led most industrially advanced countries to reverse prohibitions against growing hemp. Should the US permit commercial hemp cultivation to resume, it will likely be for the same reasons.

The US Office of National Drug control Policy issued a statement on industrial hemp in 1997 (www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/policy/hemp%5Fold.html) which included the following: “Our primary concern about the legalization of the cultivation of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is the message it would send to the public at large, especially to our youth at a time when adolescent drug use is rising rapidly... The second major concern is that legalizing hemp production may mean the de facto legalization of marijuana cultivation. Industrial hemp and marijuana are the product of the same plant, Cannabis sativa... Supporters of the hemp legalization effort claim hemp cultivation could be profitable for US farmers. However, according to the USDA and the US Department of Commerce, the profitability of industrial hemp is highly uncertain and probably unlikely. Hemp is a novelty product with limited sustainable development value even in a novelty market... For every proposed use of industrial hemp, there already exists an available product, or raw material, which is cheaper to manufacture and provides better market results.... Countries with low labor costs such as the Philippines and China have a competitive advantage over any US hemp producer.”

Recent European Commission proposals to change its subsidy regime for hemp contained the following negative evaluation of hemp seed: “The use of hemp seed ... would, however, even in the absence of THC, contribute towards making the narcotic use of cannabis acceptable... In this light, subsidy will be denied producers who are growing grain for use in human nutrition and cosmetics.”

A USDA analysis of hemp, “Industrial hemp in the United States: Status and market potential,” was issued in 2000, and is available at www.ers.usda.gov/publications/ages001e/index.htm. This is anonymously-authored, therefore presumably represents a corporate or “official” evaluation. The conclusion was that “US markets for hemp fiber (specialty textiles, paper, and composites) and seed (in food or crushed for oil) are, and will likely remain, small, thin markets. Uncertainty about longrun demand for hemp products and the potential for oversupply discounts the prospects for hemp as an economically viable alternative crop for American farmers.” Noting the oversupply of hempseeds associated with Canada’s 12,000 ha in 1999, the report concluded that the long term demand for hemp products is uncertain, and predicts that the hemp market in the US will likely remain small and limited. With respect to textiles, the report noted the lack of a thriving textile flax (linen) US industry (despite lack of legal barriers), so that it would seem unlikely that hemp could achieve a better market status. With respect to hemp oil, the report noted that hemp oil in food markets is limited by its short shelf life, the fact that it can not be used for frying, and the lack of US Food and Drug Administration approval as GRAS (“generally recognized as safe”). Moreover, summarizing four state analyses of hemp production (McNulty 1995, Ehrensing 1998, Kraenzel et al. 1998, Thompson et al. 1998), profitability seemed doubtful.

Without arguing the merits of the above contentions, we point out that the legitimate use of hemp for non-intoxicant purposes has been inhibited by the continuing ferocious war against drug abuse. In this atmosphere, objective analysis has often been lacking. Unfortunately both proponents and opponents have tended to engage in exaggeration. Increasingly, however, the world is testing the potential of hemp in the field and marketplace, which surely must be the ultimate arbiters. De Guzman (2001), noting the pessimistic USDA report, observed that “Nevertheless, others point to the potential of [the] market. Hemp products have a growing niche market of their own, and the market will remain healthy and be well supported with many competing brands.”

A wide variety of hemp clothing, footwear, and food products are now available in North America. Some American manufacturers and distributors have chosen to exploit the association of hemp products with marijuana in their advertising. Such marketing is unfortunate, sending the message that some in the industry are indifferent to the negative image that this generates in the minds of much of the potential consuming public. Admittedly, such advertising works. But marketing based on the healthful and tasteful properties of hemp food products, the durable nature of hemp textiles, and the environmental advantages of the crop has proven to be widely acceptable, and is likely to promote the long term development of hemp industries.

Will hemp commercial cultivation resume in the US in the foreseeable future? This is difficult to judge, but the following considerations suggest this might occur: (1) increasing awareness of the differences between industrial hemp and marijuana; (2) growing appreciation of the environmental benefits of hemp cultivation; (3) continuing demonstration of successful hemp cultivation and development in most of the remaining western world; all the G8 countries, except the US, produce and export industrial hemp; and (4) increasing pressure on state and federal governments to permit hemp cultivation by farmers, particularly wheat, corn, and tobacco farmers in desperate need of substitute crops, but also for rotation crops to break pest and disease cycles.

More than a century ago, an expert on hemp concluded his manual on hemp-growing in the US by stating “There is no question that when the inventive genius, comprehension and energies of the American people become interested, another grand source of profitable employment and prosperity will be established” (Boyce 1900).

MARKET DEVELOPMENTIndividual entrepreneurs, and indeed whole industries, as a matter of economic survival need to adopt a clear investment policy with respect to whether their market is to be output-driven or demand-led. From the individual producer’s perspective, the old adage “find your market before you plant your seed” remains sound advice.

In the mid 1990s, the EU provided subsidization for hemp cultivation of ca. $1,050/ha. This support was instrumental in developing a hemp industry in western Europe. However, no comparable support is available in North America, and indeed those contemplating entering into hemp cultivation are faced with extraordinary costs and/or requirements in connection with licensing, security, THC analysis, and record keeping. Those involved in value-added processing and distribution are also faced with legal uncertainties and the regular threat of idiosyncratic, indeed irrational actions of various governments. Simply displaying a C. sativa leaf on advertising has led to the threat of criminal charges in the last decade in several G8 countries. Attempting to export or import hemp products among countries is presently a most uncertain activity.

It often takes 10 to 15 years for the industry associated with a new agricultural crop to mature. While it is true that foreign imports have been the basis for hemp products in North America for at least a decade, North American production is only 4 years of age in Canada, and farming of hemp in the US has not even begun. Viewed from this perspective, the hemp industry in North America is still very much in its infancy. Varieties of hemp specifically suited to given products and regions have only started to be developed in North America. There is considerable uncertainty regarding yields, costs of production, harvesting and processing equipment, product characteristics, foreign competition, governmental support, and the vagaries of the regulatory environment. Hemp is not presently a standard crop, and is likely to continue experiencing the risks inherent in a small niche market for some time. Hemp is currently a most uncertain crop, but has such a diversity of possible uses, is being promoted by extremely enthusiastic market developers, and attracts so much attention that it is likely to carve out a much larger share of the North American marketplace than its detractors are willing to concede.

Given the uncertainties and handicaps associated with hemp, it is fortunate that there are compensating factors. As noted, as a crop hemp offers some real environmental advantages, particularly with regard to the limited needs for herbicides and pesticides. Hemp is therefore pre-adapted to organic agriculture, and accordingly to the growing market for products associated with environmentally-friendly, sustainable production. Hemp products are an advertiser’s dream, lending themselves to hyperbole (“healthiest salad oil in the world,” “toughest jeans on the market”). While the narcotics image of C. sativa is often disadvantageous, advertisers who choose to play up this association do so knowing that it will attract a segment of the consuming population. In general, the novelty of hemp means that many consumers are willing to pay a premium price. It might also be said that those who have entered the hemp industry have tended to be very highly motivated, resourceful, and industrious, qualities that have been needed in the face of rather formidable obstacles to progress.

INFORMATION RESOURCESOrganizations
  • North American Industrial Hemp Council Inc.: www.naihc.org
  • Hemp Industries Association: www.thehia.org
  • International Hemp Association: mojo.calyx.net/~olsen/HEMP/IHA/
  • Hemp Food Association: hempfood.com/
  • Ontario Hemp Alliance: www.ontariohempalliance.org
  • International Association for Cannabis as Medicine: www.acmed.org/english/main.htm
Web
  • The Hemp Commerce & Farming Report: www.hempreport.com
  • Industrial hemp information network: www.hemptech.com
Journals
  • Journal of the International Hemp Association. Vol. 1 (1994)–Vol. 6 (1999). (Vols. 1–5 and part of Vol. 6 available online at mojo.calyx.net/~olsen/HEMP/IHA/). Superseded by Journal of Industrial Hemp.
  • Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics. Hawarth Press. Vol. 1 published 2001.
  • Journal of Industrial Hemp. Haworth Press. Vol. 1 to be published 2002.
Books
  • Blade (1998), Bócsa and Karus (1998), Ceapoiu (1958), Clarke (1977, 1998a), Joyce and Curry (1970), McPartland et al. (2000), de Meijer (1994), Nova Institute (1995, 1997a, 1997b, 2000), Ranalli (1998), Riddlestone et al. 1994, Small (1979), Van der Werf (1994a).
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  • Paarlberg, D. 1990. The economics of new crops. p. 2–6. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR. www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1990/v1-002.html
  • Pate, D.W. 1995. Guide to the scientific literature on potential medical uses of Cannabis and the cannabinoids. J. Int. Hemp Assoc. 2:74–76.
  • Pate, D.W. 1998a. Development of Cannabis-based therapeutics. J. Int. Hemp Assoc. 5:36–39.
  • Pate, D.W. 1998b. The phytochemistry of Cannabis: Its ecological and evolutionary implications. p. 21–42. In: P. Ranalli (ed.), Advances in hemp research. Food Products Press (Haworth Press), London, UK.
  • Pinfold Consulting. 1998. (G. Pinfold Consulting Economists Ltd. and J. White, InfoResults Ltd.). A maritime industrial hemp product marketing study. Prepared for Nova Scotia Agriculture and Marketing (Marketing and Food Industry Development), and New Brunswick Agriculture & Rural Development (Marketing and Business Development). agri.gov.ns.ca/pt/agron/hemp/hempms.htm
  • Popular Mechanics. 1938. New billion-dollar crop. Popular Mechanics Feb.:238–238, 144A. (Reproduced in Herrer, J. 1998. The emperor wears no clothes. 11th edition. AH HA Publ., Austin, TX.)
  • Raie, M.Y., A. Ahmad, M. Ashraf, and S. Hussain. 1995. Studies of Cannabis sativa and Sorghum bicolor oils. Fat Sci. Technol. 97:428–429.
  • Ranalli, P. (ed.). 1998. Advances in hemp research. Food Products Press (Haworth Press), London.
  • Riddlestone, S., P. Desai, M. Evans, and A. Skyring. 1994. Bioregional fibers, the potential for a sustainable regional paper and textile industry based on flax and hemp. Bioregional Development Group, Sutton Ecology Centre, Carshalton, Surrey, UK.
  • Robinson, B.B. 1935. Hemp. USDA Farmers’ Bul. 1935 (rev. 1952).
  • Saeglitz, C., M. Pohl, and D. Bartsch. 2000. Monitoring gene flow from transgenic sugar beet using cytoplasmic male-sterile bait plants. Molec. Ecol. 9:2035–2040.
  • Scheifele, G.L. 2000. 1999 THC Summary report from northern Ontario and northwestern Quebec for hemp tissue analysis collected from inflorescence at time of 50% pollen shedding. Ontario Ministry Agr. Food Rural Affairs. www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/english/crops/hort/hemp/info_THCsummary1999.htm
  • Scheifele, G.L. and P.P. Dragla. 2000. 1999 report on environment and latitude effect on THC levels of industrial hemp varieties grown in Ontario. Ontario Ministry Agr. Food Rural Affairs. www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/english/crops/hort/hemp/info_hempeffect.htm
  • Scheifele, G.L., H. Hinz, K. Davies, K.-J. B. Calder, M. Bowman, and L. Guillemette. 1999. 1998 Ontario studies in determining the genetic stability, environment and latitude effect on the levels of delta-9 THC for industrial hemp varieties. Ontario Ministry Agr Food Rural Affairs. www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/english/crops/hort/hemp/info_hempthcd9.htm
  • Schultes, R.E. 1970. Random thoughts and queries on the botany of Cannabis. p. 11–38. In: R.B. Joyce and S.H. Curry (eds.), The botany and chemistry of Cannabis. J. & A. Churchill, London, UK.
  • Schultes, R.E. and A. Hofmann. 1980. The botany and chemistry of hallucinogens, 2d ed. Thomas, Springfield, IL.
  • Small, E. 1971. An agricultural perspective of marijuana. Canadian Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry into the Non-medical Use of Drugs, Res. Rpt. 104. [unpublished report. On file, Health Canada, Ottawa.]
  • Small, E. 1979. The species problem in Cannabis, science and semantics. Corpus, Toronto.
  • Small, E. and H.D. Beckstead. 1973. Common cannabinoid phenotypes in 350 stocks of Cannabis. Lloydia 35:144–165.
  • Small, E., H.D. Beckstead, and A. Chan. 1975. The evolution of cannabinoid phenotypes in Cannabis. Econ. Bot. 29:219–232.
  • Small, E. and A. Cronquist. 1976. A practical and natural taxonomy for Cannabis. Taxon 25:405–435.
  • Small, E. and D. Marcus. 2000. Hemp germplasm trials in Canada. 3rd Intl. Symp., Bioresource Hemp, Proc. “Bioresource Hemp 2000 and other fibre crops.” www.nova-institut.de/bioresource-hemp/home.htm (by subscription); www.hemphasis.com/ (free)
  • Thompson, E.C., M.C. Berger, and S. Allen. 1998. Economic impact of industrial hemp in Kentucky. Univ. Kentucky, Center for Business and Economic Research, Lexington.
  • Van der Werf, H.M.G. 1994a. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Published Doctoral thesis. Wageningen Agricultural Univ., Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  • Van der Werf, H.M.G. 1994b. Hemp facts and hemp fiction. J. Int. Hemp Assoc. 1:58–59.
  • Van Roeckel, G.J. Jr. 1994. Hemp pulp and paper production. J. Int. Hemp Assoc. 1:12–14.
  • Watson, D.P. and R.C. Clarke. 1997. The genetic future of hemp. p. 122–127. In: Nova Institute, Bioresource hemp. Proc. Symp. (Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Feb. 27–March 2, 1997), Hürth, Germany.
  • Virovets, V.G. 1996. Selection for non-psychoactive hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.) in the CIS (former USSR). J. Int. Hemp Assoc. 3:13–15.
  • Wilsie, C.P., C.A. Black, and A.R. Aandahl. 1944. Hemp production experiments, cultural practices and soil requirements. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. P63, Iowa State College, Ames.
  • Wilsie, C.P., E.S. Dyas, and A.G. Norman. 1942. Hemp, a war crop for Iowa. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. P49, Iowa State College, Ames.
  • Wong, A. 1998. Using crop residues to save forests. Global Biodiversity 7(4):7–11.
  • World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our common future. Oxford, Univ. Press.
  • World Health Organization. 1997. Cannabis: A health perspective and research agenda. World Health Organization, Geneva. (abstract at www.ndp.govt.nz/cannabis/cannabiswho.html).
  • Reblogged from: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu02/v5-284.html
Last updated: 7/31/2015 by AW
 
 

How to get involved.

You can become a part of the Cannabis Coalition for the grassroot campaign that is growing faster than the corporate world can contain it. The Missouri Cannabis Restoration and Protection Act has become the foundation of more than just a cause for a plant. It is getting people to talk about the world issues for the first time in their lives and they are seeing a central hope for the rebuilding and restoring our world back to it's healthy self. If you are ready to get involved, if you are a registered voter, I would suggest to first contact one of the names listed below, sign the petition for 100% re-legalization for the growth and use of the cannabis plant. Or if you are not registered you can still help along with everyone else. Then Get trained to get to help gather signatures on your own, and use whatever skills you are good at, to help share this cause with everyone you can. None of us can do this alone. We need you to join in our numbers and get this world educated. Together we can change the world, but we'll need your help to do it. Are you ready? Lets do this then. 


Patrick Kempen
aka, The Hempeneer

The Initiative, MO 2016-013

Picture

Please contact a person nearest you to become a petitioner or if you just want to sign the petition.

Name T=Trainer
P=Petitioner
Email Phone County City District
Lynn Kempen T/P hempenkempens@gmail.com 417-581-4660 Christian Ozark 7
Pat Kempen or
here
T/P pat@hempeneers.com 417-581-4660 Christian Ozark 7
Troy Harper P th60802@gmail.com 816-809-8517 Jackson 6
Bill Sheridan T/P bsyoeleven3@gmail.com 573-286-2953 Cole 4
Leland Green T/P green@hempeneers.com 417-890-9245 Greene Battlefield 7
Barry P smokingmonkey46@yahoo.com Green Springfield 7
Pam Harris T/P harrisdesign@gmail.com Jasper Joplin 7
Dorris Jennings T/P dorrisdurniljennings@yahoo.com 660-973-1716 Livingston 7
John Bowen T/P 660-833-6350 County City Dstrct
Charles Jones T/P hillbillylineman697071@gmail.com 573-300-5578 Ellsinore Carter 8
name (T/P) (email) phone County City Dstrct
name with link (T/P) (email) phone County City Dstrct

IF YOU WANT YOUR NAME AND INFORMATION ADDED TO THE LIST, PLEASE COMMENT BELOW OR EMAIL ME AT PAT@HEMPENEERS.COM.
 
 
Everything you wanted to know about Cannabis/Hemp. (almost)
Don't you wish there was a place you could go and learn about the cannabis/hemp plant that had links and access prepared for you to start learning about the most valuable resource Yahweh put on this earth(arguably, other than humans)?


Basic Data and Uses

    1. (Description and Uses of Hemp Hurds, Bast Fibers, and Seed Oil) “Industrial hemp can be grown as a fiber, seed, or dual-purpose crop.14 The interior of the stalk has short woody fibers called hurds; the outer portion has long bast fibers. Hemp seed/grains are smooth and about one-eighth to one-fourth of an inch long.15
      “Although hemp is not grown in the United States, both finished hemp products and raw material inputs are imported and sold for use in manufacturing for a wide range of product categories (Figure 2). Hemp fibers are used in a wide range of products, including fabrics and textiles, yarns and spun fibers, paper, carpeting, home furnishings, construction and insulation materials, auto parts, and composites. Hurds are used in various applications such as animal bedding, material inputs, papermaking, and composites. Hemp seed and oilcake are used in a range of foods and beverages, and can be an alternative food protein source. Oil from the crushed hemp seed is used as an ingredient in a range of body-care products and nutritional supplements.16 Hemp seed is also used for industrial oils, cosmetics and personal care products, and pharmaceuticals, among other composites.”

      Source:
      Johnson, Renée, “Hemp As An Agricultural Commodity,” Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Feb. 14, 2014), pp. 4-5.
      http://www.votehemp.com/PDF/RL32725-20140214.pdf



    1. (Estimated Retail US Hemp Market Size and Value) “There is no official estimate of the value of U.S. sales of hemp-based products. The Hemp Industries Association (HIA) estimates that the total U.S. retail value of hemp products in 2012 was nearly $500 million, which includes food and body products, clothing, auto parts, building materials and other products.20 Of this, HIA reports that the value of hemp-based food, supplements, and body care sales in the United States is about $156 million to $171 million annually. Previous reports about the size of the U.S. market for hemp clothing and textiles is estimated at about $100 million annually.21
      “The reported retail value of the U.S. hemp market is an estimate and is difficult to verify. Underlying data for this estimate are from SPINS survey data;22 however, because the data reportedly do not track retail sales for The Body Shop and Whole Foods Market—two major markets for hemp-based products—as well as for restaurants, hemp industry analysts have adjusted these upward to account for this gap in the reported survey data.23
      “Available industry information indicates that sales of some hemp-based products, such as foods and body care products, is growing.24 Growth in hemp specialty food products is driven, in part, by sales of hemp milk and related dairy alternatives, among other hemp-based foods.25
      “Information is not available on other potential U.S. hemp-based sectors, such as for use in construction materials or biofuels, paper, and other manufacturing uses. Data are not available on existing businesses or processing facilities that may presently be engaged in such activities within the United States.”

      Source:
      Johnson, Renée, “Hemp As An Agricultural Commodity,” Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Feb. 14, 2014), p. 6.
      http://www.votehemp.com/PDF/RL32725-20140214.pdf



    1. (Restrictions Against Federal Interference With State-Authorized Hemp Production Pilot Programs) The federal budget bill for FY2015 contains this provision:
      “SEC. 539. None of the funds made available by this Act may be used in contravention of section 7606 (‘Legitimacy of Industrial Hemp Research’) of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Public Law 113–79) by the Department of Justice or the Drug Enforcement Administration.”

      Source:
      “Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015,” US Congress, Enrolled Bill Published December 17, 2014, p. 88.
      https://www.congress.gov/113/bills/hr83/BILLS-113hr83enr.pdf



    1. (Hemp vs. Marijuana) “There are many different varieties of cannabis plants. Marijuana and hemp come from the same species of plant, Cannabis sativa, but from different varieties or cultivars. However, hemp is genetically different and is distinguished by its use and chemical makeup, as well as by differing cultivation practices in its production.2
      “Hemp, also called ‘industrial hemp,’3 refers to cannabis varieties that are primarily grown as an agricultural crop (such as seeds and fiber, and byproducts such as oil, seed cake, hurds) and is characterized by plants that are low in THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, marijuana’s Marijuana refers to the flowering tops and leaves of psychoactive cannabis varieties, which are grown for their high content of THC. Marijuana’s high THC content is primarily in the flowering tops and to a lesser extent in the leaves. THC levels for marijuana are much higher than for hemp, and are reported to average about 10%; some sample tests indicate THC levels reaching 20%-30%, or greater.4
      “A level of about 1% THC is considered the threshold for cannabis to have a psychotropic effect or an intoxicating potential.5 Current laws regulating hemp cultivation in the European Union (EU) and Canada use 0.3% THC as the dividing line between industrial and potentially drug-producing cannabis. Cultivars having less than 0.3% THC can be cultivated under license, while cultivars having more than that amount are considered to have too high a drug potential.6
      “Some also claim that industrial hemp has higher levels of cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychoactive part of marijuana, which might mitigate some of the effects of THC.7 A high ratio of CBD to THC might also classify hemp as a fiber-type plant rather than a drug-type plant. However, opinions are still mixed about how CBD levels might influence the psychoactive effects of THC.”

      Source:
      Johnson, Renée, “Hemp As An Agricultural Commodity,” Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, July 24, 2013), pp. 1-2.
      http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32725.pdf



    1. (US Hemp Imports) “The import value of hemp-based products imported and sold in the United States is difficult to estimate accurately. For some traded products, available statistics have only limited breakouts or have been expanded only recently to capture hemp subcategories within the broader trade categories for oilseeds and fibers. Reporting errors are evident in some of the trade data, since reported export data for hemp from Canada do not consistently match reported U.S. import data for the same products (especially for hemp seeds).
      “Given these data limitations, available trade statistics indicate that the value of U.S. imports under categories actually labeled “hemp,” such as hemp seeds and fibers, which are more often used as inputs for use in further manufacturing, was nearly $11.5 million in 2011. Compared to available data for 2007, the value of imported hemp products for use as inputs and ingredients has more than doubled. However, import volumes for other products such as hemp oil and fabrics are lower (Table 1). Trade data are not available for finished products, such as hemp-based clothing or other products including construction materials, carpets, or hemp-based paper products.”

      Source:
      Johnson, Renée, “Hemp As An Agricultural Commodity,” Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, July 24, 2013), p. 6.
      http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32725.pdf



    1. (Cross Pollenation of Drug-Crop Cannabis With Industrial Hemp During Cultivation“Hemp fields, in fact, could be a deterrent to marijuana growers. A strong case can be made that the best way to reduce the THC level of marijuana grown outdoors would be to grow industrial hemp near it. An experiment in Russia found that hemp pollen could travel 12 kilometers. This would mean that a hemp field would create a zone with a 12-kilometer radius within which no marijuana grower would want to establish a crop.
      “The reciprocal also applies. Growers of hemp seed would not want Cannabis of an ‘off type’ (i.e., not the intended genetic type) mixing its pollen with their flowers. The isolation of genotypes is a common procedure used by the seed industry to preserve the genetic integrity of varieties. Valued strains are created by plant breeding, at substantial expense. Marijuana pollen would destroy this value.”

      Source:
      West, David P., PhD, “Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities,” North American Industrial Hemp Council, 1998. Last accessed February 18, 2015.
      http://www.naihc.org/hemp_information/content/hemp.mj.html



    1. (Hemp Bast Fibres) “Hemp bast fibres are among the strongest and most durable of natural fibres, with high tensile strength, wet strength, and other characteristics favourable for various industrial products. It has been estimated that hemp produces three to four times as much useable fibre per acre per year as forests, and the bast fibre contains a low amount of lignin (the natural polymer that binds plant cells together), which allows it to be bleached without the use of chlorine. Hemp bast fibre is used in the production of a wide range of products where its strength and durability are advantageous, including cordage (rope, twine, etc.), specialty papers, fabrics for clothing and other applications, and industrial textiles such as geotextiles and carpeting. The strength of hemp fibre also makes it ideal for use in a range of composites for applications such as moulded car parts and fibreboard for construction.”

      Source:
      “National Industrial Hemp Strategy,” The Agricola Group (Ottawa, Canada: Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiative Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, March 30, 2008), p. 3.
      http://www.votehemp.com/PDF/National_Industrial_Hemp_Strategy_Final_Comp…



    1. (Production Differences Between Hemp and Marijuana) “Production differences depend on whether the cannabis plant is grown for fiber/oilseed or for medicinal/recreational uses. These differences involve the varieties being grown, the methods used to grow them, and the timing of their harvest (see discussion in ‘Hemp’ and ‘Marijuana,’ below). Concerns about cross-pollination among the different varieties are critical. All cannabis plants are open, wind and/or insect pollinated, and thus cross-pollination is possible.
      “Because of the compositional differences between the drug and fiber varieties of cannabis, farmers growing either crop would necessarily want to separate production of the different varieties or cultivars. This is particularly true for growers of medicinal or recreational marijuana in an effort to avoid cross-pollination with industrial hemp, which would significantly lower the THC content and thus degrade the value of the marijuana crop. Likewise, growers of industrial hemp would seek to avoid cross-pollination with marijuana plants, especially given the illegal status of marijuana. Plants grown of oilseed are also marketed according to the purity of the product, and the mixing of off-type genotypes would degrade the value of the crop.8
      “The different cannabis varieties are also harvested at different times (depending on the growing area), increasing the chance of detection of illegal marijuana, if production is commingled. Because of these differences, many claim that drug varieties of cannabis cannot easily be grown with oilseed or fiber varieties without being easily detected.9 As discussed below, among the visual plant differences are plant height (hemp is encouraged to grow tall, whereas marijuana is selected to grow short and tightly clustered); cultivation (hemp is grown as a single main stalk with few leaves and branches, whereas marijuana is encouraged to become bushy with many leaves and branches to promote flowers and buds); and planting density (hemp is densely planted to discourage branching and flowering, whereas marijuana plants are well-spaced).”

      Source:
      Johnson, Renée, “Hemp As An Agricultural Commodity,” Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, July 24, 2013), pp. 2-3.
      http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32725.pdf



    1. (Hemp Hurds) “Hemp hurd is composed of cellulose-rich, short fibres, and make up approximately 75% of the hemp stalk. They are spongy and absorbent, ideal characteristics in applications such as animal bedding and industrial absorbents. They may also be used to produce low-quality paper. More recently, hemp hurd has been used to produce a concrete-like substance for use in building applications, as well as for insulation and to produce fibreboard.”

      Source:
      “National Industrial Hemp Strategy,” The Agricola Group (Ottawa, Canada: Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiative Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, March 30, 2008), p. 3.
      http://www.votehemp.com/PDF/National_Industrial_Hemp_Strategy_Final_Comp…



    1. (Hemp Stalks) “The whole hemp stalk can also be used to produce various biofuels such as bio-oil (or pyrolytic liquid), cellulosic ethanol, syngas (synthetic gas) and methane. Alternatively, the bast fibre can first be removed for use in high-value fibre applications, and the remaining hurd can then be processed into biofuel. The processes by which hemp is converted to biofuels may also produce valuable chemicals and other materials as bi-products.”

      Source:
      “National Industrial Hemp Strategy,” The Agricola Group (Ottawa, Canada: Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiative Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, March 30, 2008), p. 4.
      http://www.votehemp.com/PDF/National_Industrial_Hemp_Strategy_Final_Comp…



    1. (Hemp Oil) “Hemp oil is extremely nutritious, and is used in foods and nutraceutical products for humans and animals, as well as in personal care products. Hemp oil is also suitable for use in industrial products such as paints, varnishes, inks and industrial lubricants, and can be used to produce biodiesel. The crushed seed meal left over from oil production is frequently used for animal feed.”

      Source:
      “National Industrial Hemp Strategy,” The Agricola Group (Ottawa, Canada: Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiative Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, March 30, 2008), p. 4.
      http://www.votehemp.com/PDF/National_Industrial_Hemp_Strategy_Final_Comp…



    1. (Hemp vs. Marijuana) “Hemp is grown quite differently from marijuana. Moreover, it is harvested at a different time than marijuana. Finally, cross-pollination between hemp plants and marijuana plants would significantly reduce the potency of the marijuana plant.”

      Source:
      West, David P, Hemp and Marijuana: Myths and Realities (Madison, WI: North American Industrial Hemp Council, 1998), p. 4.
      http://www.votehemp.com/PDF/myths_facts.pdf



    1. (Hemp Cultivation in EU) “The survey covers the harvest of 2010, related to a total cultivation area of 10,480 ha and 14 Hemp processing companies, as well as two associations of Hemp processing companies. In the official EU statistics 10,617 ha are shown for the cultivation year 2010 – that would mean that the survey covers 98.7% of the EU cultivation area. The first figure shows the development of the cultivation area since 1993. Between 1993 and 1996 the cultivation of industrial Hemp was legalised in most of the member states, some followed later. In 2011 the cultivation area decreased to its lowest value since 1994 (ca. 8,000 ha), but increased in 2012 again to 14,000 ha. That means that the Hemp cultivation area in the EU over the last ten years was between 10,000 and 15,000 ha, except 2003 (18,000 ha) and 2011 (8,000 ha). The main cultivation member states are France, The UK and The Netherlands. Since 2011 Hemp cultivation in Germany has virtually ceased because the main processor moved to France due to strong land competition from highly supported bioenergy and biofuel crops in Germany.
      “From the existing processing capacity the cultivation area could be extended to at least 20,000 ha without additional investment. This means that an increasing demand could easily be covered.”

      Source:
      Michael Carus, Stefan Karst, Alexandre Kauffmann, John Hobson and Sylvestre Bertucelli, “The European Hemp Industry: Cultivation, processing and applications for fibres, shivs and seeds” (Huerth, Germany: European Industrial Hemp Association, June 2013), pp. 1-2.
      http://www.eiha.org/attach/855/13-06_European_Hemp_Industry.pdf



    1. (Hemp and THC) According to David West, PhD, “The THC levels in industrial hemp are so low that no one could ever get high from smoking it. Moreover, hemp contains a relatively high percentage of another cannabinoid, CBD, that actually blocks the marijuana high. Hemp, it turns out, is not only not marijuana; it could be called ‘antimarijuana.'”

      Source:
      West, David P, Hemp and Marijuana: Myths and Realities (Madison, WI: North American Industrial Hemp Council, 1998), p. 3.
      http://www.votehemp.com/PDF/myths_facts.pdf



    1. (Possibility of Positive THC Test Through Exposure to Hemp Products) “Results of the hemp products tested indicate the amount of THC present in commercially available products is significantly less in products available today than those reported in the past (15-22). As a result, the probability that these products will produce urine THC metabolite levelsgreater than the DoD and HHS confirmation cutoff of 15 ng/mL is significantly reduced and should not be considered as a realistic cause for a positive urine analysis result.”

      Source:
      Holler, Justin M., Bosy, Thomas Z., et al., “Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Content of Commercially Available Hemp Products,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 32, July/August 2008, p. 431.
      http://jat.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/6/428.full.pdf



    1. (Hemp and Detection of THC Through Urinalysis) “Hemp seeds represent the manufacturing starting point for the vast majority of hemp products marketed since the mid-1990s. Hemp seeds are a good source of essential fatty acids, primarily alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3) and ]inoleic acid (omega-6). They are also found in fish, flaxseed, rapeseed oil, pumpkin seeds, and sunflowerseeds. Essential fatty acids (EFA) are necessary fats that humans cannot synthesize, so they must be obtained through diet. EFAs support the cardiovascular, reproductive,immune, and nervous systems. The human body needs EFAs to manufacture and repair cell membranes, enabling the cells to obtain optimum nutrition and expel harmful waste products (9). THC found in manufactured products is present via contamination from resin produced in the leaves and buds that come into contact with the seed shell. Seed decontamination and manufacturing processes including wash steps and cold pressing for hemp products have improved since the mid-1990s, leading to the much lower THC concentrations currently found in today’s commercial products.
      “The presence of THC in these products has been a source of concern for the military and other workplace drug-testing programs. Ingestion of hemp products has been historically used as a defense in military and civilian trials for many years and continues today despite decreased concentrations of THC in hemp products (10-12). The Division of Forensic Toxicology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology is often asked to analyze hemp products to determine their THC content in addition to rendering an opinion as to whether or not this THC concentration could be a reasonable cause for a positive THC metabolite urine analysis result.”

      Source:
      Holler, Justin M., Bosy, Thomas Z., et al., “Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Content of Commercially Available Hemp Products,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 32, July/August 2008, pp. 428-429.
      http://jat.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/6/428.full.pdf



    1. (Sources of Hemp Imported to the US) “The single largest supplier of U.S. imports of raw and processed hemp fiber is China. Other leading country suppliers include Romania, Hungary, India, and other European countries. The single largest source of U.S. imports of hemp seed and oilcake is Canada. The total value of Canada’s exports of hemp seed to the United States has grown significantly in recent years following resolution of a long-standing legal dispute over U.S. imports of hemp foods in late 2004 (see “Dispute over Hemp Food Imports (1999-2004)”). European countries such as the United Kingdom and Switzerland also have supplied hemp seed and oilcake to the United States.”

      Source:
      Johnson, Renée, “Hemp As An Agricultural Commodity,” Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, July 24, 2013), pp. 6-7.
      http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32725.pdf



    1. (Hemp Oil and Dermatitis) “Skin dryness and itchiness, in particular, are very serious problems in atopic dermatitis, which often lead to additional complications, such as opportunistic infections. In any event, it seems that the reduction of atopic symptomology observed in this study is a direct result of ingested hempseed oil. These preliminary results confirm anecdotal observations of improved skin quality after ingesting modest amounts of hempseed oil on a daily basis over a relatively short period of time.”

      Source:
      Callaway, James; Schwab, Ursula; Harvima, Ilkka; Halonen, Pirjo; Mykkanen, Otto; Hyvonen, Pekka; and Jarvinen, Tomi, “Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis,” Journal of Dermatological Treatment (London, United Kingdom: April 2005) Vol. 16, No. 2, p. 93.
      http://www.finola.com/FinolaOilandAtopy.pdf



    1. (Advantages of Hemp Versus Hydrocarbon-Based Products) “Comparisons of industrial hemp to hydrocarbon or other conventional industrial feedstocks show that, generally, hemp requires substantially less energy for manufacturing, often is suited to less-toxic means of processing, and provides competitive product performance (especially in terms of durability, light weight, and strength), greater recyclability and/or biodegradability, and a number of value-added applications for byproducts and waste materials at either end of the product life cycle.”

      Source:
      Smith-Heisters, Skaidra, “Illegally Green: Environmental Costs of Hemp Prohibition,” Reason Foundation (Los Angeles, CA: March 2008), p. 31.
      http://reason.org/files/1030ae0323a3140ecf531bd473632b57.pdf



    1. (Estimate of Hemp Market in the US in 2000) “No data are available on imports of hemp seed and oil into the United States, but data do exist on hemp fiber, yarn, and fabrics. Imports of raw hemp fiber have increased dramatically in the last few years, rising from less than 500 pounds in 1994 to over 1.5 million pounds for the first 9 months of 1999. Yarn imports also have risen substantially, peaking at slightly less than 625,000 pounds in 1997. The switch from yarn to raw fiber in the last 2 years probably reflects the development of U.S. spinning capacity. At least two companies are now spinning hemp yarn from imported fibers. Imports of hemp fabric have more than doubled from over 222,000 pounds in 1995 to about 523,000 pounds in 1998.
      “Current markets for bast fibers like industrial hemp include specialty textiles, paper, and composites. Hemp hurds are used in various applications such as animal bedding, composites, and low-quality papers. As joint products, finding viable markets for both hemp bast fiber and hurds may increase the chances of a successful business venture.”

      Source:
      United States Department of Agriculture, “Industrial Hemp in the United States: Status and Market Potential” (Washington, DC: January 2000), p. iii.
      http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/ages/ages001e.aspx



    1. (Hemp and Nutrition) “The quality of an oil or fat is most importantly determined by its fatty acid composition. Hemp is of high nutritional quality because it contains high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, mostly oleic acid (C18:1, 10%–16%), linoleic acid (C18:2, 50%–60%), alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, 20%–25%), and gammalinolenic acid (C18:3, 2%–5%) (Fig. 37). Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are the only two fatty acids that must be ingested and are considered essential to human health (Callaway 1998). In contrast to shorter-chain and more saturated fatty acids, these essential fatty acids do not serve as energy sources, but as raw materials for cell structure and as precursors for biosynthesis for many of the body’s regulatory biochemicals.”

      Source:
      Small, Ernest and Marcus, David , “Hemp: A New Crop with New Uses for North America,” Trends in New Crops and New Uses (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plant Products, 2002), p. 306.
      http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu02/pdf/small.pdf



    1. (Estimated Potential US Retail Hemp Market) “Retail sales of imported hemp products exceeded $70 million in the United States in 2006.62 Given hemp’s wide-ranging utility, supporters of domestic cultivation estimate that it would create a $300 million dollar industry.63”

      Source:
      Kolosov, Christine A., “Evaluating the Public Interest: Regulation of Industrial Hemp under the Controlled Substances Act,” UCLA Law Review (Los Angeles, CA: UCLA School of Law, 2009), p. 244.
      http://uclalawreview.org/pdf/57-1-5.pdf



    1. (Potential Economic Benefits, Kentucky 1998) In a July 1998 study issued by the Center for Business and Economic Research at the University of Kentucky, researchers estimated that if Kentucky again became the main source for industrial hemp seed (as it was in the past), the state could earn the following economic benefits:



      ScenarioFull timejobs createdWorker EarningsMain source for certified industrial seeds only69 jobs$1,300,000.00Certified seeds, plus one processing facility303 jobs$6,700,000.00Certified seeds, plus two processing facilities537 jobs$12,100,000.00Certified seeds, one processing facility, one industrial hemp paper-pulp plant771 jobs$17,600,000.00
      Source:
      Tompson, Eric C., PhD, Berger, Mark C., PhD, and Allen, Steven N., Economic Impacts of Industrial Hemp in Kentucky (Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, Center for Business and Economic Research, 1998), p. iv.
      http://www.votehemp.com/PDF/hempstudy.pdf



    1. (Potential Economic Benefits, Kentucky 1998) In a July 1998 study issued by the Center for Business and Economic Research at the University of Kentucky, researchers concluded that Kentucky hemp farmers could earn a net profit of $600 per acre for raising certified seeds, $320 net profit per acre for straw only or straw and grain production, and $220 net profit per acre for grain only production. The only crop found to be more profitable was tobacco.

      Source:
      Tompson, Eric C., PhD, Berger, Mark C., PhD, and Allen, Steven N., Economic Impacts of Industrial Hemp in Kentucky (Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, Center for Business and Economic Research, 1998), p. 21.
      http://www.votehemp.com/PDF/hempstudy.pdf



    1. Laws and Policies

      (Federal Law and DEA Control Over Hemp Production in the US) “In 1937, Congress passed the first federal law to discourage Cannabis production for marijuana while still permitting industrial uses of the crop (the Marihuana Tax Act; 50 Stat. 551). Under this statute, the government actively encouraged farmers to grow hemp for fiber and oil during World War II. After the war, competition from synthetic fibers, the Marihuana Tax Act, and increasing public anti-drug sentiment resulted in fewer and fewer acres of hemp being planted, and none at all after 1958.
      “Strictly speaking, the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA, 21 U.S.C. §801 et. seq.) does not make growing hemp illegal; rather, it places strict controls on the production of hemp, making it illegal to grow the crop without a DEA permit.
      “The CSA adopted the same definition of Cannabis sativa that appeared in the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act. The definition of “marihuana” (21 U.S.C. §802(16) reads:

      The term marihuana means all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L., whether growing or not; the
      seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant; and every compound, manufacture,
      salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin. Such term does not
      include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from
      the seeds of such plant, any other compound … or preparation of such mature stalks (except the
      resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the sterilized seed of such plant which is
      incapable of germination.


      “The statute thus retains control over all varieties of the cannabis plant by virtue of including them under the term ‘marijuana’ and does not distinguish between low- and high-THC varieties. The language exempts from control the parts of mature plants—stalks, fiber, oil, cake, etc. — intended for industrial uses. Some have argued that the CSA definition exempts industrial hemp under its term exclusions for stalks, fiber, oil and cake, and seeds.52 DEA refutes this interpretation.53
      “Since federal law prohibits cultivation without a permit, DEA determines whether any industrial hemp production authorized under a state statute is permitted, and it enforces standards governing the security conditions under which the crop must be grown. In other words, a grower needs to get permission from the DEA to grow hemp or faces the possibility of federal charges or property confiscation, regardless of whether the grower has a state-issued permit.54

      Source:
      Johnson, Renée, “Hemp As An Agricultural Commodity,” Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, July 24, 2013), p. 13.
      http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32725.pdf



    1. (Hemp Products and the DEA) In late 1999, during the development of the 2003 rules (described in the previous section), the DEA acted administratively to demand that the U.S. Customs Service enforce a zero-tolerance standard for the THC content of all forms of imported hemp, and hemp foods in particular.
      “The DEA followed up, in October 2001, with publication of an interpretive rule in the Federal Register explaining the basis of its zero-tolerance standard.63 It held that when Congress wrote the statutory definition of marijuana in 1937, it ‘exempted certain portions of the Cannabis plant from the definition of marijuana based on the assumption (now refuted) that such portions of the plant contain none of the psychoactive component now known as THC.’ Both the proposed rule (which was published concurrently with the interpretive rule) and the final 2003 rule gave retailers of hemp foods a date after which the DEA could seize all such products remaining on shelves. On both rules, hemp trade associations requested and received court-ordered stays blocking enforcement of that provision. The DEA’s interpretation made hemp with any THC content subject to enforcement as a controlled substance.
      “Hemp industry trade groups, retailers, and a major Canadian exporter filed suit against the DEA, arguing that congressional intent was to exempt plant parts containing naturally occurring THC at non-psychoactive levels, the same way it exempts poppy seeds containing trace amounts of naturally occurring opiates.64Industry groups maintain that (1) naturally occurring THC in the leaves and flowers of cannabis varieties grown for fiber and food is already at below-psychoactive levels (compared with drug varieties); (2) the parts used for food purposes (seeds and oil) contain even less; and (3) after processing, the THC content is at or close to zero. U.S. and Canadian hemp seed and food manufacturers have in place a voluntary program for certifying low, industry-determined standards in hemp-containing foods. Background information on the TestPledge Program is available athttp://www.TestPledge.com. The intent of the program is to assure that consumption of hemp foods will not interfere with workplace drug testing programs or produce undesirable mental or physical health effects.
      “On February 6, 2004, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit permanently enjoined the enforcement of the final rule.65 The court stated that ‘the DEA’s definition of ‘THC’ contravenes the unambiguously expressed intent of Congress in the CSA and cannot be upheld.’66 In late September 2004 the Bush Administration let the final deadline pass without filing an appeal.”

      Source:
      Johnson, Renée, “Hemp As An Agricultural Commodity,” Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, July 24, 2013), p. 15.
      http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32725.pdf



    1. (State Laws Regarding Hemp) “Beginning around 1995, an increasing number of state legislatures began to consider a variety of initiatives related to industrial hemp. Most of these have been resolutions calling for scientific, economic, or environmental studies, and some are laws authorizing planting experimental plots under state statutes. Nonetheless, the actual planting of hemp, even for state-authorized experimental purposes, remains regulated by the DEA under the Controlled Substances Act.
      “A summary of current state legislative actions regarding industrial hemp, according to the advocacy organization Vote Hemp, is as follows (also see text box):79
      “• Nine states have defined industrial hemp as distinct and removed barriers to its production (Colorado, Kentucky, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, Vermont, Washington, and West Virginia).
      “• Three states have passed bills creating commissions or authorizing research (Hawaii, Kentucky, and Maryland).
      “• Nine states have passed hemp resolutions (California, Colorado, Illinois, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Vermont, and Virginia).
      “• Eight states have passed hemp study bills (Arkansas, Illinois, Maine, Minnesota, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, and Vermont). (Some states have done studies without legislative directive.)
      “Although several states have established programs under which a farmer may be able to grow industrial hemp under certain circumstances, a grower would still need to obtain a DEA permit and abide by the DEA’s strict production controls. This relationship has resulted in some high-profile cases, wherein growers have applied for a permit but DEA has not approved (or denied) a permit to grow hemp, even in states that authorize cultivation under state laws. Ongoing cases involve attempts to grow hemp under state law in North Dakota, Montana, Vermont, and other states. DEA permits to grow hemp have been issued to some university researchers and to the Hawaii Industrial Hemp Research Program.80
      “Changes to Colorado’s state laws in November 2012 now allow for industrial hemp cultivation in small test plots, and industrial hemp is now reported as being grown in Colorado.81 Changes to Kentucky’s state laws in April 2013 might also soon allow for hemp to be grown in that state.”

      Source:
      Johnson, Renée, “Hemp As An Agricultural Commodity,” Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, July 24, 2013), p. 18.
      http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32725.pdf



    1. (Controlled Substances Act) “The CSA [Controlled Substances Act] classifies marijuana in the first category of schedules, placing it among the most harmful and dangerous drugs.137 Marijuana meets the criteria for a Schedule I controlled substance because of its THC content, which is a psychoactive hallucinogenic substance with a high potential for abuse.138 Another key classification made by the CSA regarding marijuana was its broad definition of the drug.139 The CSA defines marijuana as follows:
      “The term ‘“marihuana” means all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L., whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin. Such term does not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of such plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such mature stalks (except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the sterilized seed of such plant which is incapable of germination.140 
      “This effectively placed the entire use of the hemp plant, whether for drug use or as industrial hemp, squarely under the control of the CSA.141 Therefore, the DEA views industrial hemp containing .3% THC the same as marijuana grown for drug use which commonly contains a 24% THC level, or eighty times more THC.142”

      Source:
      Duppong, Thomas A., “Industrial Hemp: How the Classification of Industiral Hemp as Marijuana under the Controlled Substances Act Has Caused the Dream of Growing Industrial Hemp in North Dakota to Go up in Smoke,” North Dakota Law Review (Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota School of Law, 2009) Vol. 85, No. 2, p. 417-418.
      http://web.law.und.edu/LawReview/issues/web_assets/pdf/85-2/85NDLR403.pd…



    1. “Legislative history suggests that Congress accepted the name Cannabis sativa L. for the hemp plant, believing it to be the common description within the scientific community.41 This categorization combined all marijuana-producing Cannabisplants.42 Therefore, any hemp plant capable of producing any amount of THC was classified as Cannabis sativa L. under the CSA.43”

      Source:
      Duppong, Thomas A., “Industrial Hemp: How the Classification of Industiral Hemp as Marijuana under the Controlled Substances Act Has Caused the Dream of Growing Industrial Hemp in North Dakota to Go up in Smoke,” North Dakota Law Review (Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota School of Law, 2009) Vol. 85, No. 2, p. 407.
      http://web.law.und.edu/LawReview/issues/web_assets/pdf/85-2/85NDLR403.pd…



    1. (Countries Which Grow Hemp) “Approximately 30 countries in Europe, Asia, and North and South America currently permit farmers to grow hemp. Some of these countries never outlawed production, while some countries banned production for certain periods in the past. China is among the largest producing and exporting countries of hemp textiles and related products, as well as a major supplier of these products to the United States. The European Union (EU) has an active hemp market, with production in most member nations. Production is centered in France, the United Kingdom, Romania, and Hungary.36
      “Acreage in hemp cultivation worldwide has been mostly flat to decreasing, reported at about 200,000 acres globally in 2011.37 Although variable year-to-year, global production has increased overall from about 250 million pounds in 1999 to more than 380 million pounds in 2011, mostly due to increasing production of hemp seed (Figure 2). Upward trends in global hemp seed production roughly track similar upward trends in U.S. imports of hemp seed and oil, mostly for use in hemp-based foods, supplements, and body care products (Table 1).
      “Many EU countries lifted their bans on hemp production in the 1990s and, until recently, also subsidized the production of “flax and hemp” under the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy.38 EU hemp acreage was reported at about 26,000 acres in 2010, which was below previous years, when more than 50,000 acres of hemp were under production.39 Most EU production is of hurds, seeds, and fibers. Other non-EU European countries with reported hemp production include Russia, Ukraine, and Switzerland. Other countries with active hemp grower and/or consumer markets are Australia, New Zealand, India, Japan, Korea, Turkey, Egypt, Chile, and Thailand.40”

      Source:
      Johnson, Renée, “Hemp As An Agricultural Commodity,” Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, July 24, 2013), pp. 9-10.
      http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32725.pdf



    1. (Hemp and CBD) “Another chemical shared by both industrial hemp and marijuana is Cannabidiol (CBD).48 CBD is unique because it is not intoxicating and it also moderates the euphoric effect of THC.49 Marijuana, which has disproportionately higher levels of THC than industrial hemp, also contains lower levels of CBD.50 The higher THC and lower CBD concentration gives marijuana its psychoactive effect.51Conversely, industrial hemp’s low THC levels and comparatively high CBD levels produce none of the intoxicating effects of marijuana.52”

      Source:
      Duppong, Thomas A., “Industrial Hemp: How the Classification of Industiral Hemp as Marijuana under the Controlled Substances Act Has Caused the Dream of Growing Industrial Hemp in North Dakota to Go up in Smoke,” North Dakota Law Review (Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota School of Law, 2009) Vol. 85, No. 2, p. 408.
      http://web.law.und.edu/LawReview/issues/web_assets/pdf/85-2/85NDLR403.pd…



    1. (Hemp History) “From the colonial period through the middle of the nineteenth century, hemp was widely grown in the United States for use in fabric, twine, and paper.19 Production dropped by the 1890’s as technological advances made cotton a more competitive textile crop, and coarse fiber crops were increasingly imported.20Nonetheless, American farmers continued to grow hemp into the middle of the twentieth century, finding it a useful rotation crop because it acted as a natural herbicide21—a dense, rapidly growing crop, it choked out weeds prior to the next planting of corn and other crops.22 At the urging of the government, production to supply fiber for military purposes was expanded enormously during World War I and again during World War II, particularly after the Japanese cut off exports from the Philippines.”

      Source:
      Kolosov, Christine A., “Evaluating the Public Interest: Regulation of Industrial Hemp under the Controlled Substances Act,” UCLA Law Review (Los Angeles, CA: UCLA School of Law, 2009), p. 241.
      http://uclalawreview.org/pdf/57-1-5.pdf



    1. (Hemp History) “Probably indigenous to temperate Asia, C. sativa is the most widely cited example of a “camp follower.” It was pre-adapted to thrive in the manured soils around man’s early settlements, which quickly led to its domestication (Schultes 1970). Hemp was harvested by the Chinese 8500 years ago (Schultes and Hofmann 1980). For most of its history, C. sativa was most valued as a fiber source, considerably less so as an intoxicant, and only to a limited extent as an oilseed crop. Hemp is one of the oldest sources of textile fiber, with extant remains of hempen cloth trailing back 6 millennia. Hemp grown for fiber was introduced to western Asia and Egypt, and subsequently to Europe somewhere between 1000 and 2000 BCE. Cultivation in Europe became widespread after 500 CE. The crop was first brought to South America in 1545, in Chile, and to North America in Port Royal, Acadia in 1606. The hemp industry flourished in Kentucky, Missouri, and Illinois between 1840 and 1860 because of the strong demand for sailcloth and cordage (Ehrensing 1998). From the end of the Civil War until 1912, virtually all hemp in the US was produced in Kentucky.”

      Source:
      Small, Ernest and Marcus, David , “Hemp: A New Crop with New Uses for North America,” Trends in New Crops and New Uses (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plant Products, 2002), p. 284.
      http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu02/pdf/small.pdf



    1. (History in American History) “Hemp was widely grown in the United States from the colonial period into the mid-1800s; fine and coarse fabrics, twine, and paper from hemp were in common use. By the 1890s, labor-saving machinery for harvesting cotton made the latter more competitive as a source of fabric for clothing, and the demand for coarse natural fibers was met increasingly by imports. Industrial hemp was handled in the same way as any other farm commodity, in that USDA compiled statistics and published crop reports,45 and provided assistance to farmers promoting production and distribution.46 In the early 1900s, hemp continued to be grown and researchers at USDA continued to publish information related to hemp production and also reported on hemp’s potential for use in textiles and in paper manufacturing.47 Several hemp advocacy groups, including the Hemp Industries Association (HIA) and Vote Hemp Inc., have compiled other historical information and have copies of original source documents.48
      “Between 1914 and 1933, in an effort to stem the use of Cannabis flowers and leaves for their psychotropic effects, 33 states passed laws restricting legal production to medicinal and industrial purposes only.49 The 1937 Marihuana Tax Act defined hemp as a narcotic drug, requiring that farmers growing hemp hold a federal registration and special tax stamp, effectively limiting further production expansion.
      “Hemp was briefly brought back into large-scale production during World War II, at the urging of USDA, to provide for ‘products spun from American-grown hemp’ including ‘twine of various kinds for tying and upholsters work; rope for marine rigging and towing; for hay forks, derricks, and heavy duty tackle; light duty fire hose; thread for shoes for millions of American soldiers; and parachute webbing for our paratroopers,’ as well as ‘hemp for mooring ships; hemp for tow lines; hemp for tackle and gear; hemp for countless naval uses both on ship and shore.’50
      “In 1943, U.S. hemp production reached more than 150 million pounds (140.7 million pounds hemp fiber; 10.7 million pound hemp seed) on 146,200 harvested acres. This compared to pre-war production levels of about 1 million pounds. After reaching a peak in 1943, production started to decline. By 1948, production had dropped back to 3 million pounds on 2,800 harvested acres, with no recorded production after the late 1950s.51”

      Source:
      Johnson, Renée, “Hemp As An Agricultural Commodity,” Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, July 24, 2013), p. 12.
      http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32725.pdf



  1. (Hemp in US History) “During World War I, some hemp cultivation occurred in several states, including Kentucky, Wisconsin, California, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Kansas, and Iowa (Ehrensing 1998). The second world war led to a brief revival of hemp cultivation in the Midwest, as well as in Canada, because the war cut off supplies of fiber (substantial renewed cultivation also occurred in Germany for the same reason). Until the beginning of the 19th century, hemp was the leading cordage fiber. Until the middle of the 19th century, hemp rivaled flax as the chief textile fiber of vegetable origin, and indeed was described as ‘the king of fiber-bearing plants,—the standard by which all other fibers are measured’ (Boyce 1900). Nevertheless, the Marihuana Tax Act applied in 1938 essentially ended hemp production in the United States, although a small hemp fiber industry continued in Wisconsin until 1958. Similarly in 1938 the cultivation of Cannabis became illegal in Canada under the Opium and Narcotics Act.”

    Source:
    Small, Ernest and Marcus, David , “Hemp: A New Crop with New Uses for North America,” Trends in New Crops and New Uses (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plant Products, 2002), p. 284.
    http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu02/pdf/small.pdf



– See more at: http://www.drugwarfacts.org/cms/hemp#sthash.uAdTb7gg.hUz8u9dD.dpuf

700-MEDICINAL-USES-OF-CANNABIS

http://www.encod.org/info/700-MEDICINAL-USES-OF-CANNABIS.html

700 MEDICINAL USES OF CANNABIS SORTED BY DISEASE



Source: Weedbay

A collection of clinical studies, papers and reference providing the ultimate resource for medical disorders helped by medical marijuana.

If a link doesn’t work , try Weedbay

All the versions of this article: [English]

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884


ADD/ ADHD


Marijuana and ADD Therapeutic uses of Medical Marijuana in the treatment of ADD 
http://www.onlinepot.org/medical/add&mmj.htm

Cannabis as a medical treatment for attention deficit disorder – 
http://www.chanvre-info.ch/info/en/…-treatment.html

Cannabinoids effective in animal model of hyperactivity disorder
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english/bulletin/ww_en_db_cannabis_artikel.php?id=162#4

Cannabis ’Scrips to Calm Kids?
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,117541,00.html

Addiction risk- Physical


Women’s Guide to the UofC
http://wguide.uchicago.edu/9substance.html

Cannabis Basics
http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_basics.shtml

10 Things Every Parent, Teenager & Teacher Should Know About Marijuana (4th Q)
http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_flyer1.shtml

Marijuana Myths, Claim No. 9
http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_myth9.shtml

AIDS – see HIV

Alcoholism


Role of cannabinoid receptors in alcohol abuse
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/30338.php

Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/314/2/780.abstract?maxtoshow=&HITS=&hits=&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=cannabidiol%252Bantioxidants%252Bdiuretics%252Bneurotoxicity&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resource

Cannabis substitution
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=86

Cannabis as a Substitute for Alcohol
http://ccrmg.org/journal/03sum/substitutealcohol.html

ALS


Cannabinol delays symptom onset
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e…t_uids=16183560

Marijuana in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/11467101

Cannabis use in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/15055508

Cannabis Relieves Lou Gehrigs Symptoms
http://www.rense.com/general51/lou.htm

Cannabis’ Potential Exciting Researchers in Treatment of ALS, Parkinson’s Disease
http://66.218.69.11/search/cache?ei…&icp=1&.intl=us

Alzheimers


MARIJUANA SLOWS ALZHEIMER’S DECLINE
http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v05/n307/a10.html

Marijuana may block Alzheimer’s
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4286435.stm

Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology by Cannabinoids
http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/8/1904

Marijuana’s Active Ingredient Shown to Inhibit Primary Marker of Alzheimer’s Disease
http://www.pacifier.com/~alive/articles/ca060809.htm

Dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with anorexia
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=61

Dronabinol in the treatment of refractory agitation in Alzheimer’s disease
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=92

Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=59

Cannabinoids reduce the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in animals
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english/bulletin/ww_en_db_cannabis_artikel.php?id=187#1

Molecular Link between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…sease_Pathology

THC inhibits primary marker of Alzheimer’s disease
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english/bulletin/ww_en_db_cannabis_artikel.php?id=225#3

Amotivational Syndrome


Amotivational Syndrome
http://leda.lycaeum.org/?ID=12454

Marijuana Myths, Claim No. 11
http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannab…is_myth11.shtml

Debunking ’Amotivational Syndrome’
http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v06/n400/a06.html

Amotivational Syndrome
http://www.bookrags.com/Amotivational_syndrome

Debunking the Amotivational Syndrome
http://www.drugscience.org/Petition/C3F.html

Cannabis Use Not Linked To So-Called “Amotivational Syndrome”
http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Grou…tm_format=print

Anecdotal Evidence/First person stories
Shared Comments and Observations
http://www.rxmarihuana.com/comments…bservations.htm

Cannabis Sativa (Marijuana) for Fibromyalgia
http://www.fibromyalgia-reviews.com/Drg_Marijuana.cfm

ANECDOTAL ARTICLES
http://cannabislink.ca/medical/#medanecdotal

Testimonials
http://www.benefitsofmarijuana.com/testimonials.html

Excerpts of testimonials.
http://www.ganjaland.com/freemedicalseeds.htm

Appetite Stimulant


Dronabinol an effective appetite stimulant?
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=188

THC improves appetite and reverses weight loss in AIDS patients
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=189

Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=191

Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: caloric intake, mood, and sleep.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=190

The synthetic cannabinoid nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=177

Dronabinol for supportive therapy in patients with malignant melanoma and liver metastases
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=180

Safety and efficacy of dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=61

The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=13

Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=59

Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=21

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=52

Effect of dronabinol on nutritional status in HIV infection.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=150

Dronabinol stimulates appetite and causes weight gain in HIV patients.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=20

Dronabinol effects on weight in patients with HIV infection.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=45

Recent clinical experience with dronabinol.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=90

Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=149

Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=117

Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=118

Cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…xia_Study_Group

THC effective in appetite and weight loss in severe lung disease (COPD)
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=191#2

Machinery Of The ’Marijuana Munchies’
http://www.sciencedaily.com/release…51226102503.htm

Arthritis


Cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/97/17/9561

The Cannabinergic System as a Target for Anti-inflammatory Therapies
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/conte…000013/art00008

Sativex in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis
http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals&#8230;.bstract/45/1/50

Suppression of fibroblast metalloproteinases by ajulemic acid,
http://ccicnewsletter.com/index.php…06_Rheumatology

The antinociceptive effect of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the arthritic rat
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…binoid_receptor

Synergy between Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine in the arthritic rat
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…e_arthritic_rat

Cannabis based medicine eases pain and suppresses disease
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/33376.php

Pot-Based Drug Promising for Arthritis
http://www.webmd.com/rheumatoid-art…g-for-arthritis

Asthma


The Cannabinergic System as a Target for Anti-inflammatory Therapies
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/conte…000013/art00008

Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=44

Comparison of bronchial effects of nabilone and terbutaline
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=43

Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=109

Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=60

Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=57

Marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=67

New Synthetic Delta-9-THC Inhaler Offers Safe, Rapid Delivery
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/22937.php

Smoked marijuana and oral delta-9-THC on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects
http://www.ukcia.org/research/Smoke…InAsthmatic.php

Atherosclerosis


Marijuana Chemical Fights Hardened Arteries
http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/…rdened-arteries

Does Cannabis Hold the Key to Treating Cardiometabolic Disease
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/525040_print

Cannabis may keep arteries clear
http://www.gnn.tv/headlines/2634/Ca…_arteries_clear

The Cannabinergic System as a Target for Anti-inflammatory Therapies
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/conte…000013/art00008

Cannabis compound tackles blood vessel disease
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/22658.php

Medical marijuana: study shows that THC slows atherosclerosis
http://thenexthurrah.typepad.com/th…al_marijua.html

Cardiovascular Effects of Cannabis
http://www.idmu.co.uk/canncardio.htm

Atrophie Blanche


Atrophie Blanche Treated With Cannabis and/or THC
http://ccrmg.org/journal/04spr/clinical.html#thm

Autism


Autism and Medical Marijuana

THE SAM PROJECT: James D.
http://www.letfreedomgrow.com/articles/james_d.htm

Medical marijuana: a valuable treatment for autism?
http://www.autismwebsite.com/ari/ne…r/marijuana.htm

Cancer – breast


Anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/95/14/8375

Inhibition of Human Breast and Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation1
http://endo.endojournals.org/cgi/co…tract/141/1/118

Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids
http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/c…ract/318/3/1375

9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Inhibits Cell Cycle Progression in Human Breast Cancer
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/c…ract/66/13/6615

Cannabidiol inhibits tumour growth in leukaemia and breast cancer
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=220#2

THC and prochlorperazine effective in reducing vomiting in women following breast surgery
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=219#1

Cancer- colorectal


Anandamide, induces cell death in colorectal carcinoma cells
http://gut.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/54/12/1741

Cannabinoids and cancer: potential for colorectal cancer therapy.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/16042581

Cancer- glioma/ brain


Anti-tumor effects of cannabidiol
http://www.hempworld.com/HempPharm/…milanstudy.html

Pot’s cancer healing properties
http://www.november.org/stayinfo/br…ncerKiller.html

Cannabinoids Inhibit the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Pathway in Gliomas
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/c…hort/64/16/5617

Inhibition of Glioma Growth in Vivo
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/c…/61/15/5784.pdf

Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=193

Cannabidiol triggers caspase activation and oxidative stress in human glioma cells.
http://www.ihop-net.org/UniPub/iHOP…l?pmid=16909207

Cannabinoid receptors in human astroglial tumors
http://www.brainlife.org/abstracts/…t_j20060800.pdf

Cannabis extract makes brain tumors shrink, halts growth of blood vessels
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/12088.php

THC tested against brain tumour in pilot clinical study
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=222#1

Cancer- leukemia


Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines
http://bloodjournal.hematologylibra…ract/105/3/1214

Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells
http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/c…stract/70/3/897

Marijuana’s Active Ingredient Kills Leukemia Cells
http://www.treatingyourself.com/vbu…read.php?t=7107

Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease
http://bloodjournal.hematologylibra…t/100/2/627.pdf

Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells
http://www.osti.gov/energycitations…osti_id=5164483

Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Apoptosis in Jurkat Leukemia T Cells
http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/cgi/con…bstract/4/8/549

Cannabidiol inhibits tumour growth in leukaemia and breast cancer
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=220#2

Cancer- lung


Antineoplastic activity of cannabinoids
http://www.ukcia.org/research/Antin…ds/default.html

Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial growth factor-induced lung cancer cell migration
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…astasis_in_vivo

Smoking Cannabis Does Not Cause Cancer Of Lung or Upper Airways
http://ccrmg.org/journal/05aut/nocancer.html

No association between lung cancer and cannabis smoking in large study
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=219#2

Marijuana Smoking Found Non-Carcinogenic
http://www.medpagetoday.com/Hematol…gCancer/tb/3393

CLAIM #4: MARIJUANA CAUSES LUNG DISEASE
http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannab…bis_myth4.shtml

Cancer- melanoma


Dronabinol for supportive therapy in patients with malignant melanoma and liver metastases.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=180

Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=35

Cancer – oral


Smoking of cannabis does not increase risk for oral cancer
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=175#1

Marijuana use and Risk of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
http://66.218.69.11/search/cache?ei…&icp=1&.intl=us

Cancer-pancreatic


Cannabinoids Induce Apoptosis of Pancreatic Tumor Cells
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/c…ract/66/13/6748

Cancer – prostate


Inhibition of Human Breast and Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation
http://endo.endojournals.org/cgi/co…tract/141/1/118

Cannabinoid Receptor as a Novel Target for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/c…t/65/5/1635.pdf

Cancer – Risk Cannabis vs Tobacco


Cannabis Smoke and Cancer: Assessing the Risk
http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=6891

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/ar…i?artid=1277837

Smoking Marijuana Does Not Cause Lung Cancer
http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v05/n1065/a03.html

Blunt Smokers Link Dependence Potential To Nicotine
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/52838.php

Premiere British Medical Journal Pronounces Marijuana Safer Than Alcohol, Tobacco
http://cannabislink.ca/medical/safer.html

Why Doesn’t Smoking Marijuana Cause Cancer?
http://www.healthcentral.com/drdean/408/14275.html

Marijuana Smoking Found Non-Carcinogenic
http://www.medpagetoday.com/Hematol…gCancer/tb/3393


Cancer – Skin


Inhibition of skin tumor growth
http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full…y=MpUgjDbqHybAU

Cannabis Reduces Skin Cancer
http://www.onlinepot.org/medical/skincancerreport.htm

Cancer – Testicular


The antiemetic efficacy of nabilone
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=127

Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer
http://www.rxmarihuana.com/shared_c…icularchemo.htm

Cancer –various/ unnamed
Derivatives of cannabis for anti-cancer treatment
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_relea…uo-do060605.php

Cancer Killer
http://www.november.org/stayinfo/br…ncerKiller.html

Anandamide Induces Apoptosis
http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/abstract/275/41/31938

Nabilone improves pain and symptom management
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=177

The effects of smoked cannabis in painful peripheral neuropathy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=96

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=52

Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=28

Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=149

Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=31

Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=155

Nabilone versus domperidone
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=129

Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=155

Nabilone vs. placebo in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=156

The antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=24

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=5

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=23

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an antiemetic in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=27

Amelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-THC
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=107

Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine as an antiemetic
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=126

Analgesic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=16

The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=17

Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-THC
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…xia_Study_Group

Cannabis May Help Combat Cancer-causing Herpes Viruses
http://www.sciencedaily.com/release…40923092627.htm

Marijuana Smoking Found Non-Carcinogenic
http://www.medpagetoday.com/Hematol…gCancer/tb/3393

Cannabidiol


Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity
http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/c…ource

Cannabinol delays symptom onset
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e…t_uids=16183560

Cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/97/17/9561

Cannabidiol inhibits tumour growth in leukaemia and breast cancer
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=220#2

Anti-tumor effects of cannabidiol
http://www.hempworld.com/HempPharm/…milanstudy.html

Cannabidiol triggers caspase activation and oxidative stress in human glioma cells.
http://www.ihop-net.org/UniPub/iHOP…l?pmid=16909207

Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells
http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/c…stract/70/3/897

Cannabidiol inhibits tumour growth in leukaemia and breast cancer
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=220#2

Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/conte…sn7o5efqr.alice

Neuroprotective and Blood-Retinal Barrier-Preserving Effects of Cannabidiol
http://ajp.amjpathol.org/cgi/content/full/168/1/235

Evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=14

Cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=139

Beneficial and adverse effects of cannabidiol in a Parkinson patient
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=142

Treatment of Meige’s syndrome with cannabidiol.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=114

CANNABIDIOL TO HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS AND EPILEPTIC PATIENTS
http://web.acsalaska.net/~warmgun/es201.html

Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=42

Neuroprotective effect of (-)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…f_peroxynitrite

EFFECTS OF CANNABIDIOL IN HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer…al/hunting1.htm

The therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/16209908

Cannabidiol has a cerebroprotective action
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…iting_mechanism

Cannabidiol as an antipsychotic
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=171

Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abs…844117?prt=true

Who’s Afraid of Cannabidiol?
http://www.counterpunch.org/gardner07142007.html

Chemical composition


Cannabis: A source of useful pharma compounds
http://www.medpot.net/forums/index.php?showtopic=18608

Pharmacokinetics and cannabinoid action using oral cannabis extract
http://www.pharma-lexicon.com/medic…hp?newsid=29638

Pharmacokinetics of cannabinoids
http://66.218.69.11/search/cache?ei…&icp=1&.intl=us

The chemistry and biological activity of cannabis
http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/bulle….html?print=yes

Differential effects of medical marijuana based on strain and route of administration
http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.o…trainsstudy.pdf

What is THC?
http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.o…1.0373456855945

Cannabis / Marijuana ( ? 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol, THC)
http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/inj…gs/cannabis.htm

Chemotherapy


Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=191

Dronabinol for supportive therapy in patients with malignant melanoma and liver metastases
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=180

Intractable nausea and vomiting
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=35

An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=7

Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=28

Marijuana as antiemetic medicine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=134

Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=31

Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=155

Nabilone versus prochlorperazine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=120

Nabilone: an alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=123

Antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=127

Nabilone versus domperidone
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=129

THC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=34

Comparison of nabilone and prochlorperazine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=128

Nabilone vs. prochlorperazine for refractory emesis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=146

Nabilone vs. placebo
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=156

Tetrahydroannabinol (THC) vs prochlorperazine as chemotherapy antiemetics.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=30

Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=64

Comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=3

Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=88

Antiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=6

Tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=24

Effects of nabilone and prochlorperazine on chemotherapy-induced emesis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=131

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=5

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=23

THC as an antiemetic in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=27

Amelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-THC
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=107

Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=126

Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=4


Children


Experiences with THC-treatment in children and adolescents
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=80

An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=7

Nabilone versus prochlorperazine for control of cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in children
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=120

Nabilone: an alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=123

Marijuana and ADD Therapeutic uses of Medical Marijuana in the treatment of ADD
http://www.onlinepot.org/medical/add&mmj.htm

Oily fish makes ’babies brainier’
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4631006.stm

Cannabis is a First-Line Treatment for Childhood Mental Disorders
http://www.counterpunch.org/mikuriya07082006.html

Ganja use among Jamaican women.
http://www.rism.org/isg/dlp/ganja/a…anjaBabyes.html

Dreher’s Jamaican Pregnancy Study
http://www.november.org/stayinfo/br…reherStudy.html

Cannabis Relieves Morning Sickness
http://ccrmg.org/journal/06spr/dreher.html#morning

Moderate cannabis use not harmful to the brain of adolescents, M R I study finds
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=218#3

No brain structural change associated with adolescent cannabis use
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/bo…l&artid=1524733

No ’Smoking’ Gun: Research Indicates Teen Marijuana Use Does Not Predict Drug, Alcohol Abuse
http://www.sciencedaily.com/release…61204123422.htm

Pot May Not Shrink Teens’ Brains After All
http://www.medpagetoday.com/Neurolo…urology/tb/3242

Chronic Cystitis


Cannabinoid rotation in a young woman with chronic cystitis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=115


CPOD


THC effective in appetite and weight loss in severe lung disease (COPD)
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=191#2

Heavy Long-Term Marijuana Use Does Not Impair Lung Function
http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannab…is_media7.shtml

Diabetes


Cannabinoid Reduces Incidence Of Diabetes
http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=6909

Marijuana Compound May Help Stop Diabetic Retinopathy
http://www.sciencedaily.com/release…60227184647.htm

Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/conte…sn7o5efqr.alice

Anticoagulant Effects of a Cannabis Extract in an Obese Rat Model
http://www.level1diet.com/research/id/14687

Neuroprotective and Blood-Retinal Barrier-Preserving Effects of Cannabidiol
http://ajp.amjpathol.org/cgi/content/full/168/1/235

The Cannabinergic System as a Target for Anti-inflammatory Therapies
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/conte…000013/art00008

Effect of tetrahydrocurcumin on blood glucose, plasma insulin and hepatic key enzymes
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…d_diabetic_rats

Cannabidiol reduces the development of diabetes in an animal study
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=219#3

Depression


Cannabinoids promote hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic- and antidepressant
http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/115/11/3104

Antidepressant-like activity by blockade of anandamide hydrolysis
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/ar…bmedid=16352709

Decreased depression in marijuana users.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/15964704

Antidepressant-like activity
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/ar…bmedid=16352709

Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: caloric intake, mood, and sleep.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=190

Nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=177

The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=13

Cannabis and Depression
http://www.pacifier.com/~alive/cmu/…nd_cannabis.htm

Association between cannabis use and depression may not be causal, study says
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=177#4

Marijuana use and depression among adults: Testing for causal associations.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e…Pubmed_RVDocSum

Do patients use marijuana as an antidepressant?
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e…Pubmed_RVDocSum

Dermatitis


Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abs…ryText=hempseed

Dronabinol


Dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with anorexia
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=61

Dronabinol in the treatment of refractory agitation in Alzheimer’s disease
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=92

Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=59

Dronabinol an effective appetite stimulant?
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=188

Safety and efficacy of dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=61

Effect of dronabinol on nutritional status in HIV infection.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=150

Dronabinol stimulates appetite and causes weight gain in HIV patients.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=20

Dronabinol effects on weight in patients with HIV infection.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=45

Recent clinical experience with dronabinol.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=90

Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=149

Dronabinol for supportive therapy in patients with malignant melanoma and liver metastases.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=180

Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=28

Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=149

Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=191

Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: caloric intake, mood, and sleep.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=190

Dronabinol and retinal hemodynamics in humans.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=202

Dronabinol reduces signs and symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=181

Nausea relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol).
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=35

Dronabinol in patients with intractable pruritus secondary to cholestatic liver disease.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=116

Treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury with dronabinol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=112

Cannabinoid Activator Mellows Out Colon
http://www.medpagetoday.com/MeetingCoverage/ACG/tb/4410

Drug testing


Hemp oil causes positive urine tests for THC
http://www.druglibrary.org/crl/drug…0JAnToxicol.pdf

Dystonia


Cannabis sativa and dystonia secondary to Wilson’s disease.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/15390041

Experiences with THC-treatment in children and adolescents
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=80

Evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=14

Cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=139

Beneficial and adverse effects of cannabidiol in a Parkinson patient
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=142

Treatment of Meige’s syndrome with cannabidiol.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=114

Endocannabinoid Deficiency


Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency
http://www.freedomtoexhale.com/clinical.pdf

The endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in multiple sclerosis
http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/cgi…stract/awm160v1

Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis
http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/cgi…ull/126/10/2191

Epilepsy


Epilepsy patients are smoking pot
http://www.safeaccessnow.org/article.php?id=1638

CANNABIDIOL TO HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS AND EPILEPTIC PATIENTS
http://web.acsalaska.net/~warmgun/es201.html

Experiences with THC-treatment in children and adolescents
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=80

Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=42

Anticonvulsant nature of marihuana smoking.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=39

Cannabis may help epileptics
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/4423.php

Hypnotic and Antiepileptic Effects of Cannabidiol
http://www.thecompassionclub.org/me…rue&pageNumber=

Marijuana: an effective antiepileptic treatment in partial epilepsy?
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=157

Familial Mediterranean Fever


Pain relief with oral cannabinoids in familial Mediterranean fever.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=18

Fertility


Synthetic Cannabinoid May Aid Fertility In Smokers
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/58063.php

Fever


A Novel Role of Cannabinoids
http://ccicnewsletter.com/index.php…nfectious_Disea

A Cooling Effect From Cannabis?
http://ccrmg.org/journal/05aut/coolcannabis.html

Fibromyalgia


Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/16834825

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency
http://www.freedomtoexhale.com/clinical.pdf

Cannabis Sativa (Marijuana) for Fibromyalgia
http://www.fibromyalgia-reviews.com/Drg_Marijuana.cfm

THC Reduces Pain in Fibromyalgia Patients
http://www.illinoisnorml.org/content/view/63/35/

Gateway Theory


The Myth of Marijuana’s Gateway Effect
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/mjgate.htm

Endogenous cannabinoids are not involved in cocaine reinforcement
http://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc…a4e861a90579fac

No ’Smoking’ Gun: Research Indicates Teen Marijuana Use Does Not Predict Drug, Alcohol Abuse
http://www.sciencedaily.com/release…61204123422.htm

CLAIM #13:MARIJUANA IS A “GATEWAY” TO THE USE OF OTHER DRUGS
http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannab…is_myth13.shtml

Glaucoma


Marijuana Smoking vs Cannabinoids for Glaucoma Therapy
http://archopht.ama-assn.org/cgi/co…act/116/11/1433

Dronabinol and retinal hemodynamics in humans.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=202

Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=201

Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=88

Effect of marihuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=87

Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on intraocular pressure in humans.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=40

Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressure.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=47

Neuroprotective and Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Effects of (-)Delta-Tetrahydrocannabinol
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…del_of_Glaucoma

Neuroprotective effect of (-)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…f_peroxynitrite

Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/468444

Gynocology and obstetrics


Cannabis Treatments in Obstetrics and Gynecology: A Historical Review
http://www.freedomtoexhale.com/russo-ob.pdf

Heart Disease/ Cardiovascular


Marijuana Chemical Fights Hardened Arteries
http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/…rdened-arteries

The endogenous cardiac cannabinoid system: a new protective mechanism
http://www.cannabinoid.com/boards/thd3x10073.shtml

Cardiovascular pharmacology of cannabinoids.
http://www.biowizard.com/story.php?pmid=16596789

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol protects cardiac cells from hypoxia
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/conte…020001/00002346

Does Cannabis Hold the Key to Treating Cardiometabolic Disease?
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/525040_print

Cannabinoid Offers Cardioprotection
http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Grou…tm_format=print

Heavy Cannabis Use Not Independently Associated With Cardiovascular Risks
http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=6972

Marijuana use, diet, body mass index, and cardiovascular risk factors
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/16893701

Cannabinoids and cardiovascular disease
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…ical_treatments

Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in cardiovascular disease
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…s_and_illusions

The in vitro and in vivo cardiovascular effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…_oxide_synthase

Cannabinoids prevented the development of heart failure in animal study
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=145#2

Cannabis use not associated with risk factors for diseases of heart and circulation
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=225#2

THC protects heart cells in the case of lowered oxygen supply
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=212#1

Medical marijuana: study shows that THC slows atherosclerosis
http://thenexthurrah.typepad.com/th…al_marijua.html

Cardiovascular Effects of Cannabis
http://www.idmu.co.uk/canncardio.htm

Changes in middle cerebral artery velocity after marijuana
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e…0&dopt=Abstract[/]

Hepatitis


Moderate Cannabis Use Associated with Improved Treatment Response
http://www.hivandhepatitis.com/hep_…6/091506_a.html

Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C
http://www.natap.org/2006/HCV/091506_02.htm

Hepatitis C – The Silent Killer Can Medical Cannabis Help?
http://www.pacifier.com/~alive/cmu/hepatitis_c.htm

Herpes


Cannabis May Help Combat Cancer-causing Herpes Viruses
http://www.sciencedaily.com/release…40923092627.htm

THC inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpes viruses in vitro
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/bo…ml&artid=521080

Suppressive effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on herpes simplex virus infectivity in vitro
http://www.ebmonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/196/4/401

Inhibition of cell-associated herpes simplex virus
http://www.ebmonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/185/1/41

The Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Herpes Simplex Virus Replication
http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/cont…stract/49/2/427

Hiccups


Marijuana cures hiccups
http://www.yourhealthbase.com/database/a77k.htm

Marijuana For Intractable Hiccups
http://cannabislink.ca/medical/hiccups.html

HIV / AIDS


Marijuana Use Does Not Accelerate HIV Infection
http://paktribune.com/news/print.php?id=139255

THC improves appetite and reverses weight loss in AIDS patients
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=189

Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: caloric intake, mood, and sleep.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=190

Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=199

Smoked cannabis therapy for HIV-related painful peripheral neuropathy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=172

Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=62

Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=21

Effect of dronabinol on nutritional status in HIV infection.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=150

Dronabinol stimulates appetite and causes weight gain in HIV patients.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=20

Dronabinol effects on weight in patients with HIV infection.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=45

Recent clinical experience with dronabinol.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=90

Marijuana as therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS: Social and health aspects
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…_health_aspects

Marijuana and AIDS: A Four-Year Study
http://ccrmg.org/journal/05spr/aids.html

Historical studies


The La Guardia Committee Report
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer…lag/lagmenu.htm

Physical, Mental, and Moral Effects of Marijuana: The Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/Library/effects.htm

MARIAJUANA SMOKING IN PANAMA
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer…ama/panama1.htm

The British Pharmaceutical Codex – 1934
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer…ical/brit34.htm

ON THE PREPARATIONS OF THE INDIAN HEMP, OR GUNJAH
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer…1850/gunjah.htm

DISPENSATORY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Fifth Edition (1843)
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer…ry/dispensa.htm

New Remedies:Pharmaceutically and Therapeutically Considered Fourth Edition (1843)
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer…ry/dunglisn.htm

On the Haschisch or Cannabis Indica
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer…ry/bellhash.htm

ON INDICATIONS OF THE HACHISH-VICE IN THE OLD TESTAMENT
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer…tory/hashot.htm

The Physiological Activity of Cannabis Sativa
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer…istory/japa.htm

CANNABIS, U.S.P. (American Cannabis):
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer…ry/vbchmed1.htm

Hormones


Effects of chronic marijuana use on testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating …
http://www.anesth.uiowa.edu/readabs…sp?PMID=1935564

Marijuana: interaction with the estrogen receptor
http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/c…tract/224/2/404

Huntington’s Disease


EFFECTS OF CANNABIDIOL IN HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer…al/hunting1.htm

Nabilone Could Treat Chorea and Irritability in Huntington’s Disease
http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/c…/18/4/553?rss=1

Hysterectomy


Effect of nabilone on nausea and vomiting after total abdominal hysterectomy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=137

Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension


Dronabinol reduces signs and symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=181

IQ


Findings of a longitudinal study of effects on IQ
http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/166/7/887

Heavy cannabis use without long-term effect on global intelligence
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=115#2

Marijuana does not dent IQ permanently
http://www.newscientist.com/article…ermanently.html

Marinol/Synthetics/ cannabinoid mixtures


CANNABIS AND MARINOL IN THE TREATMENT OF MIGRAINE HEADACHE
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/migrn2.htm

Marinol vs Natural Cannabis
http://www.norml.org/pdf_files/NORM…al_Cannabis.pdf

The therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/16209908

Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abs…504929?prt=true

Side effects of pharmaceuticals not elicited by comparable herbal medicines.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/10394675

Sativex in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis
http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals&#8230;.bstract/45/1/50

Is dronabinol an effective appetite stimulant?
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=188

Sativex in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis associated detrusor overactivity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=168

Sativex® in patients with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=169

Nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=177

Dronabinol for supportive therapy in patients with malignant melanoma and liver metastases
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=180

Synthetic cannabinomimetic nabilone on patients with chronic pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=197

Nabilone significantly reduces spasticity-related pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=200

Sativex produced significant improvements in a subjective measure of spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=170

Analgesic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid CT-3 on chronic neuropathic pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=85

Cannabinoid rotation in a young woman with chronic cystitis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=115

Dronabinol in patients with intractable pruritus
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=116

Cannabinoids reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease:
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=54

Nabilone on L-DOPA induced dyskinesia in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=153

Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=11

Big Pharma’s Strange Holy Grail: Cannabis Without Euphoria?
http://www.counterpunch.org/gardner07082006.html

Sativex showed positive effects in 65 per cent of patients with chronic diseases
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=230#4


Meige’s Syndrome


Treatment of Meige’s syndrome with cannabidiol.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=114

Migraine/ Headache


CANNABIS AND MARINOL IN THE TREATMENT OF MIGRAINE HEADACHE
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/migrn2.htm

Dronabinol reduces signs and symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=181

Cannabis and Migraine
http://www.pacifier.com/~alive/cmu/…nd_migraine.htm

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency
http://www.freedomtoexhale.com/clinical.pdf

Hemp for Headache
http://www.freedomtoexhale.com/hh.pdf

Chronic Migraine Headache
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/migrn1.htm

Morning Sickness
Medical marijuana: a surprising solution to severe morning sicknesshttp://www.findarticles.com/p/artic…124/ai_n6015580

Medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women
http://safeaccess.ca/research/cannabis_nausea2006.pdf

Mortality Rates


Marijuana use and mortality.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/ar…i?artid=1380837

Marijuana Smoking Doesn’t Lead to Higher Death Rate
http://ccrmg.org/journal/03sum/kaiser.html

How deadly is marijuana?
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/4426.php

MS


Sativex in patients with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis
http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1517/14656566.7.5.607

Marijuana derivatives may provide MS treatment
http://www.healthypages.net/news.asp?newsid=5381

Marijuana Helps MS Patients Alleviate Pain, Spasms
http://www.mult-sclerosis.org/news/…smsAndPain.html

Cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
http://www.neurology.org/cgi/conten…t/65/6/812?etoc

Cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=192

Sativex in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis associated detrusor overactivity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=168

The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=185

Nabilone significantly reduces spasticity-related pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=200

Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=160

Sativex produced significant improvements in a subjective measure of spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=170

Cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=175

Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=56

Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an oral cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=63

cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=81

Are oral cannabinoids safe and effective in refractory neuropathic pain?
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=143

Dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with anorexia
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=61

Cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=82

Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=108

Cannabis based medicinal extract on refractory lower urinary tract dysfunction
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=103

Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=203

The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=13

Orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=12

Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=11

Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=2

Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=1

Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=9

Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=53

Cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis.
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…tiple_sclerosis

Cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain.
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…is_related_pain

The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…ial__CAMS_LUTS_

Can Cannabis Help Multiple Sclerosis? An International Debate Rages
http://www.pacifier.com/~alive/cmu/…bis_help_ms.htm

Cannabis’ Potential Exciting Researchers in Treatment of ALS, Parkinson’s Disease
http://66.218.69.11/search/cache?ei…&icp=1&.intl=us

The endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in multiple sclerosis
http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/cgi…stract/awm160v1

Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis
http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/cgi…ull/126/10/2191

Nabilone


The synthetic cannabinoid nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=177

Nabilone versus prochlorperazine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=120

Nabilone: an alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=123

Antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=127

Nabilone versus domperidone
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=129

Comparison of nabilone and prochlorperazine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=128

Nabilone vs. prochlorperazine for refractory emesis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=146

Nabilone vs. placebo
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=156

Effects of nabilone and prochlorperazine on chemotherapy-induced emesis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=131

Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=126

Nabilone versus prochlorperazine for control of cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in children
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=120

Nabilone: an alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=123

Effect of nabilone on nausea and vomiting after total abdominal hysterectomy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=137

Nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=177

Synthetic cannabinomimetic nabilone on patients with chronic pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=197

Nabilone significantly reduces spasticity-related pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=200

Nabilone on L-DOPA induced dyskinesia in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=153

Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=11

Nabilone significantly reduces spasticity-related pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=200

Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=203

Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=11

Comparison of nabilone and metoclopramide in the control of radiation-induced nausea.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=130

Nabilone and metoclopramide in the treatment of nausea and vomiting
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=121

Nabilone: an alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=123

Comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=127

Nabilone versus domperidone in the treatment of cytotoxic-induced emesis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=129

Add-on treatment with the synthetic cannabinomimetic nabilone on patients with chronic pain –
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=197

Comparison of bronchial effects of nabilone and terbutaline
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=43

Nabilone Could Treat Chorea and Irritability in Huntington’s Disease
http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/c…/18/4/553?rss=1

Nausea


THC improves appetite and reverses weight loss in AIDS patients
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=189

Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination with ondansetron versus ondansetron alone
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=191

Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: caloric intake, mood, and sleep.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=190

Nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=177

Dronabinol for supportive therapy in patients with malignant melanoma and liver metastases.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=180

Nausea relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol).
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=35

An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=7

Effect of nabilone on nausea and vomiting after total abdominal hysterectomy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=137

Marijuana as antiemetic medicine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=134

Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=31

Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=155

Nabilone versus prochlorperazine for control of cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in children
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=120

Comparison of nabilone and metoclopramide in the control of radiation-induced nausea.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=130

Nabilone and metoclopramide in the treatment of nausea and vomiting
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=121

Nabilone: an alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=123

Comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=127

Nabilone versus domperidone in the treatment of cytotoxic-induced emesis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=129

THC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient—the UCLA study
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=34

Comparison of nabilone and prochlorperazine for emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=128

Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=44

Nabilone vs. prochlorperazine for refractory emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=146

Nabilone vs. placebo in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=156

Dose vs response of tetrahydroannabinol (THC) vs prochlorperazine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=30 delta 9-

Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=64

Comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=3

Tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=88

Antiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=6

The antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=24

The antiemetic effects of nabilone and prochlorperazine on chemotherapy-induced emesis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=131

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=5

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=23

THC as an antiemetic in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=27

Amelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-THC.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=107

Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine as an antiemetic
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=126

Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=4

Receptor mechanism and antiemetic activity of structurally-diverse cannabinoids
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…the_least_shrew


Neurons


Marijuana Promotes Neuron Growth
http://www.medpot.net/forums/index.php?showtopic=27460

Marijuana-Like Chemicals in the Brain Calm Neurons
http://www.medpot.net/forums/index.php?showtopic=9686

Marijuana May Spur New Brain Cells
http://www.treatingyourself.com/vbu…read.php?t=5921

Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis
http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/115/11/3104

Medical marijuana uses – 700 medical marijuana clinical studies and papers

Neuropathic pain


Cannabinoids Among Most Promising Approaches to Treating Neuropathic Pain
http://www.redorbit.com/news/health…source=r_health

Cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis
http://www.neurology.org/cgi/conten…t/65/6/812?etoc

Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=199

Smoked cannabis therapy for HIV-related painful peripheral neuropathy
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=172

Two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=143

Cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=82

Analgesic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid CT-3 on chronic neuropathic pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=85

Smoked cannabis in painful peripheral neuropathy and cancer pain refractory to opiods.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=96

Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=203

The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=13

Cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain.
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…is_related_pain


Neuroprotectant


Marijuana Protects Your Brain
http://www.roninpub.com/art-mjbrain.html

The neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/17196181

Neuroprotective and Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Effects of (-)Delta-THC
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…del_of_Glaucoma

Neuroprotective effect of (-)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…f_peroxynitrite

Neuroprotection induced by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in AF5 cells
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…ol_in_AF5_cells

Cannabidiol has a cerebroprotective action
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…iting_mechanism

Cannabidiol but not Delta(9)-THC has a neuroprotective effect without the development of tolerance..
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…nt_of_tolerance

Delta(9)-THC) prevents cerebral infarction
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…ent_hypothermia

Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol protects hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…_excitotoxicity

Cannabis and Neuroprotection
http://www.pacifier.com/~alive/cmu/…oprotection.htm

Nutrition


Oily fish makes ’babies brainier’
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4631006.stm

Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abs…ryText=hempseed

Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=117

Obesity


Does Cannabis Hold the Key to Treating Cardiometabolic Disease?
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/525040_print

Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=117

Osteoporosis


Prototype drug to prevent osteoporosis based on cannabinoids
http://www.news-medical.net/?id=15220

Hebrew U. Researchers Find Cannabis Can Strengthen Bones
http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/96146

Peripheral cannabinoid receptor, CB2, regulates bone mass
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/103/3/696

New Weapon In Battle Against Osteoporosis
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/35621.php

Activation of CB2 receptor attenuates bone loss in osteoporosis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=210#2

Pain-


Cannabis effective at relieving pain after major surgery
http://www.news-medical.net/?id=17995

Cannabinoids, in combination with (NSAIDS), produce a synergistic analgesic effect
http://www.medjournal.com/forum/sho…587&postcount=1

Cannabinoids Among Most Promising Approaches to Treating Neuropathic Pain,
http://www.redorbit.com/news/health…source=r_health

Cannabinoid analgesia as a potential new therapeutic option
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/16449552

Analgesic and adverse effects of an oral cannabis extract (Cannador) for postoperative pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=184

Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=194

Add-on treatment with the synthetic cannabinomimetic nabilone on patients with chronic pain –
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=197

Nabilone significantly reduces spasticity-related pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=200

Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=178

Are oral cannabinoids safe and effective in refractory neuropathic pain?
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=143

Dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with anorexia
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=61

Cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=91

Tetrahydrocannabinol for treatment of chronic pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=147

Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=203

The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=13

Pain relief with oral cannabinoids in familial Mediterranean fever.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=18

The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=12

Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=53

Analgesic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=16

The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=17

Most pain patients gain benefit from cannabis in a British study
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…kel.php?id=84#1

Parkinson’s Disease


Marijuana Compounds May Aid Parkinson’s Disease
http://cannabisnews.com/news/19/thread19725.shtml

Marijuana-Like Chemicals Helps Treat Parkinson’s
http://cannabisnews.com/news/22/thread22608.shtml

Cannabis use in Parkinson’s disease: subjective improvement of motor symptoms.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=33

Cannabinoids reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=54

Nabilone on L-DOPA induced dyskinesia in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=153

Evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=14

Beneficial and adverse effects of cannabidiol in a Parkinson patient
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=142

Neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/17196181

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder


IDF TO TREAT SHELL SHOCK WITH CANNABIS
http://www.onlinepot.org/medical/id…sshellshock.htm

Study: Marijuana Eases Traumatic Memories
http://cannabisnews.com/news/13/thread13601.shtml

Medical Marijuana: PTSD Medical Malpractice
http://salem-news.com/articles/june…veque_61407.php

Cannabis for the Wounded – Another Walter Reed Scandal
http://www.libertypost.org/cgi-bin/…=179973&Disp=11

PTSD and Cannabis: A Clinician Ponders Mechanism of Action
http://ccrmg.org/journal/06spr/perspective2.html

Cannabis Eases Post Traumatic Stress
http://ccrmg.org/journal/06spr/ptsd.html

Endocannabinoids extinguish bad memories in the brain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=123#1

Natural high helps banish bad memories
http://www.newscientist.com/article…d-memories.html

Pregnancy


Oily fish makes ’babies brainier’
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4631006.stm

Ganja use among Jamaican women.
http://www.rism.org/isg/dlp/ganja/a…anjaBabyes.html

Dreher’s Jamaican Pregnancy Study
http://www.november.org/stayinfo/br…reherStudy.html

Cannabis Relieves Morning Sickness
http://ccrmg.org/journal/06spr/dreher.html#morning

Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Neonatal Outcomes in Jamaica
http://www.druglibrary.org/Schaffer…/can-babies.htm

The Endocannabinoid-CB Receptor System
http://www.nel.edu/pdf_/25_12/NEL251204A01_Fride_.pdf

CLAIM #7: MARIJUANA USE DURING PREGNANCY HARMS THE FETUS
http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannab…bis_myth7.shtml

Prenatal exposure


Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Neonatal Outcomes in Jamaica
http://www.druglibrary.org/Schaffer…/can-babies.htm

The Endocannabinoid-CB Receptor System
http://www.nel.edu/pdf_/25_12/NEL251204A01_Fride_.pdf

Ganja use among Jamaican women.
http://www.rism.org/isg/dlp/ganja/a…anjaBabyes.html

Dreher’s Jamaican Pregnancy Study
http://www.november.org/stayinfo/br…reherStudy.html

Nonmutagenic action of cannabinoids in vitro
http://trophort.com/005/993/005993433.html

Prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and caffeine on birth size and subsequent growth.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e…st_uids=3657756

Tobacco and marijuana use on offspring growth from birth through 3 years of age.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e…Pubmed_RVDocSum

Prenatal marijuana use and neonatal outcome.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e…Pubmed_RVDocSum

Pruritis


Cream with endocannabinoids effective in the treatment of pruritus
http://bbsnews.net/article.php/20051211212223236/print

Topical cannabinoid agonists : An effective new possibility for treating chronic pruritus.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=196

Dronabinol in patients with intractable pruritus secondary to cholestatic liver disease.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=116

Sativex


Sativex in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis
http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals&#8230;.bstract/45/1/50

Sativex produced significant improvements in a subjective measure of spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=170

Sativex in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=168

Sativex in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis associated detrusor overactivity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=168

Sativex showed positive effects in 65 per cent of patients with chronic diseases
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=230#4

Schizophrenia/ Mental disorders


Increased cannabinoid receptor density in the posterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/16710682

Symptoms of schizotypy precede cannabis use.
http://www.ukcia.org/forum/read.php?7,7543,7579

Cannabidiol as an antipsychotic
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=171

Anandamide levels in cerebrospinal fluid of first-episode schizophrenic patients
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…of_cannabis_use

Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Effects on Psychosis and Cognition
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…s_and_Cognition

Cannabis is a First-Line Treatment for Childhood Mental Disorders
http://www.counterpunch.org/mikuriya07082006.html

Cannabis does not induce schizophrenia,
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/12283.php

Cannabis use does not cause schizophrenia
http://www.health.am/psy/more/canna…_schizophrenia/

Cannabinoids and psychosis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e…Pubmed_RVDocSum

Cannabis as a psychotropic medication
http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/185/1/78

Study Shows Long Term Marijuana Users Healthy
http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannab…_science3.shtml

Cannabis and schizophrenia link blurs further
http://www.newscientist.com/channel…rs-further.html

Evidence does not show a strong causal relation between the use of cannabis and psychosocial harm
http://www.library.nhs.uk/mentalHea…24106&tabID=289

Sickle Cell Disease


Cannabis Relieves Sickle Cell Disease!
http://www.cannabisculture.com/foru…?Number=1155878

Sickle Cell Disease and Cannabis
http://www.pacifier.com/~alive/cmu/Sickle_cell.htm

Marijuana smoking in young adults with sickle cell
http://caribbean.scielo.org/scielo….&lng=en&nrm=iso

Medical use of cannabis in sickle cell disease
http://www.chanvre-info.ch/info/it/…-in-sickle.html

Cannabis use in sickle cell disease: a questionnaire study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e…2&dopt=Abstract

Sleep modulation


Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats.
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abs…844117?prt=true

Dronabinol reduces signs and symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=181

Cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=175

Two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=15

Functional role for cannabinoids in respiratory stability during sleep
http://www.pacifier.com/~alive/cmu/…sleep_apnea.htm

THC reduces sleep apnoea in animal research
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=120#1

Spasticity


The treatment of spasticity with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=166

Cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=192

Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=160

Sativex produced significant improvements in a subjective measure of spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=170

Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in ms?
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=56

Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an oral cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=63

Are oral cannabinoids safe and effective in refractory neuropathic pain?
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=143

Experiences with THC-treatment in children and adolescents
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=80

The treatment of spasticity with D9-THC in patients with spinal cord injury
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=79

The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=12

Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=11

Treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury with dronabinol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=112

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=10

Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=2

Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=1

Effect of Delta-9-THC on EMG Measurements in Human Spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=110

The effect of delta-9-THC on human spasticity.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=154

Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=113

Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…show.php?s_id=8

Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=53

The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males.
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=138

Motor effects of delta 9 THC in cerebellar Lurcher mutant mice.
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…her_mutant_mice

Cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…tiple_sclerosis

Spinal Cord Injury


The treatment of spasticity with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=166

Are oral cannabinoids safe and effective in refractory neuropathic pain?
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=143

The treatment of spasticity with D9-THC) in patients with spinal cord injury
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=79

Delta-9-THC as an alternative therapy for overactive bladders in spinal cord injury
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=102

The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=12

Treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury with dronabinol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=112

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=10

The effect of delta-9-THC on human spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=154

Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=113

Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=53

The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=138

Stroke


Cannabidiol has a cerebroprotective action
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…iting_mechanism

Delta(9)-THC) prevents cerebral infarction
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…ent_hypothermia

Medical marijuana: study shows that THC slows atherosclerosis
http://thenexthurrah.typepad.com/th…al_marijua.html


Tea as medicine


Cannabis tea revisited: A systematic evaluation
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e…Pubmed_RVDocSum

THC/tetrahydrocannabinol


THC is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=98

THC effective in Tourette-Syndrome
http://www.pacifier.com/~alive/cmu/tourette_thc.htm

THC effective in Tourette syndrome in a 6-week trial
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=146#1

Treatment of Tourette’s Syndrome With Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi…/full/156/3/495

THC inhibits primary marker of Alzheimer’s disease
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=225#3

THC improves appetite and reverses weight loss in AIDS patients
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=189

Cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…xia_Study_Group

THC effective in appetite and weight loss in severe lung disease (COPD)
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=191#2

The antinociceptive effect of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the arthritic rat
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…binoid_receptor

Synergy between Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine in the arthritic rat
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…e_arthritic_rat

Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=109

Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=60

Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=57

Marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=67

New Synthetic Delta-9-THC Inhaler Offers Safe, Rapid Delivery
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/22937.php

Smoked marijuana and oral delta-9-THC on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects
http://www.ukcia.org/research/Smoke…InAsthmatic.php

Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=193

9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Inhibits Cell Cycle Progression in Human Breast Cancer
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/c…ract/66/13/6615

THC and prochlorperazine effective in reducing vomiting in women following breast surgery
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=219#1

Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Apoptosis in Jurkat Leukemia T Cells
http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/cgi/con…bstract/4/8/549

Delta(9)-THC) prevents cerebral infarction
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…ent_hypothermia

Medical marijuana: study shows that THC slows atherosclerosis
http://thenexthurrah.typepad.com/th…al_marijua.html

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=10

The effect of delta-9-THC on human spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=154

The treatment of spasticity with D9-THC) in patients with spinal cord injury
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=79

Delta-9-THC as an alternative therapy for overactive bladders in spinal cord injury
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=102

The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=12

The treatment of spasticity with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=166

Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Effects on Psychosis and Cognition
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…s_and_Cognition

The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=12

Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=53

Analgesic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=16

The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=17

The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=13

Cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=91

Tetrahydrocannabinol for treatment of chronic pain
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=147

Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=194

Delta(9)-THC) prevents cerebral infarction
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…ent_hypothermia

Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol protects hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity
http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medl…_excitotoxicity

Tobacco vs Cannabis-


Cannabis Smoke and Cancer: Assessing the Risk
http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=6891

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/ar…i?artid=1277837

Smoking Marijuana Does Not Cause Lung Cancer
http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v05/n1065/a03.html

Tobacco and marijuana use on offspring growth from birth through 3 years of age
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/e…Pubmed_RVDocSum

Progression from marijuana use to daily smoking and nicotine dependence
http://www.erowid.org/references/refs_view.php?ID=6951

High anxieties – What the WHO doesn’t want you to know about cannabis
http://www.newscientist.com/article…t-cannabis.html

Radioactive tobacco
http://www.cannabisculture.com/news/tobacco/

Tourette’s Syndrome


Treatment of Tourette’s Syndrome With Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi…/full/156/3/495

THC is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=98

Treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…how.php?s_id=99

Cannabinoids: possible role in patho-physiology and therapy of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=100

THC effective in Tourette-Syndrome
http://www.pacifier.com/~alive/cmu/tourette_thc.htm

THC effective in Tourette syndrome in a 6-week trial
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=146#1

Vaporizers


Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system
http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies…ow.php?s_id=187

Smokeless Cannabis Delivery Device Efficient And Less Toxic
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/71112.php

Volcano is to Vaporizer As Porsche is to Automobile
http://ccrmg.org/journal/04spr/volcano.html

Recommendation to Patients: “Don’t smoke, Vaporize”
http://ccrmg.org/journal/03sum/vaporize.html

Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize
http://marijuana.researchtoday.net/archive/4/4/1195.htm

Use of vaporizers reduces toxins from cannabis smoke
http://www.cannabis-med.org/english…el.php?id=146#2

Wilson’s Disease


Cannabis sativa and dystonia secondary to Wilson’s disease
http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/15390041

More Hemp facts, here:http://www.thehia.org/facts.html

Hemp#Hempeneering #Cannabis Can

Copied From:http://www.drugwarfacts.org/cms/hemp#sthash.uAdTb7gg.hUz8u9dD.dpbs

Data Table:
Economic Benefits from Hemp in Kentucky

A flyer, “Drug War Facts: Facts About Hemp,” can be downloaded fromhttp://drugwarfacts.org/cms/files/DrugWarFactsHempOverview022014.pdf

 
 
8,000+ BCE Use of hemp cord in pottery identified at ancient village site dating back over 10,000 years, located in the area of modern day Taiwan. Finding hemp use and cultivation in this date range puts it as one of the first and oldest known human agriculture crops. As explained by Richard Hamilton in the 2009 Scientific American article on sustainable agriculture "Modern humans emerged some 250,000 years ago, yet agriculture is a fairly recent invention, only about 10,000 years old ... Agriculture is not natural; it is a human invention. It is also the basis of modern civilization." This point was also touched on by Carl Sagan in 1977 when he proposed the possibility that marijuana may have actually been world's first agricultural crop, leading to the development of civilization itself (see 1977, below).
6,000 BCE Cannabis seeds and oil used for food in China. 
4,000 BCE Textiles made of hemp are used in China and Turkestan. 
2,737 BCE First recorded use of cannabis as medicine by Emperor Shen Neng of China. 
2,000-800 BCE Bhang (dried cannabis leaves, seeds and stems) is mentioned in the Hindu sacred text Atharvaveda (Science of Charms) as "Sacred Grass", one of the five sacred plants of India. It is used by medicinally and ritually as an offering to Shiva. 
1,500 BCE Cannabis cultivated in China for food and fiber. Scythians cultivate cannabis and use it to weave fine hemp cloth. 
700-600 BCE The Zoroastrian Zendavesta, an ancient Persian religious text of several hundred volumes refers to bhang as the "good narcotic." 
600 BCE Hemp rope appears in southern Russia. 
700-300 BCE Scythian tribes leave Cannabis seeds as offerings in royal tombs. 
500 BCE Scythian couple die and are buried with two small tents covering containers for burning incense. Attached to one tent stick was a decorated leather pouch containing wild Cannabis seeds. This closely matches the stories told by Herodotus. The gravesite, discovered in the late 1940s, was in Pazryk, northwest of the Tien Shan Mountains in modern-day Khazakstan. Hemp is introduced into Northern Europe by the Scythians. An urn containing leaves and seeds of the Cannabis plant, unearthed near Berlin, is found and dated to about this time. Use of hemp products spread throughout northern Europe. 
430 BCE Herodotus reports on both ritual and recreation use of Cannabis by the Scythians (Herodotus The Histories 430 B.C. trans. G. Rawlinson). 
200 BCE Hemp rope appears in Greece. Chinese Book of Rites mentions hemp fabric. 
100 BCE First evidence of hemp paper, invented in China. 
100-0 BCE The psychotropic properties of Cannabis are mentioned in the newly compiled herbal Pen Ts'ao Ching. 

0-100 CE Construction of Samaritan gold and glass paste stash box for storing hashish, coriander, or salt, buried in Siberian tomb. 
23-79 Pliny the Elder's The Natural History mentions hemp rope and marijuana's analgesic effects. 
47-127 Plutarch mentions Thracians using cannabis as an intoxicant. 
70 Dioscorides, a physician in Nero's army, lists medical marijuana in his Pharmacopoeia. 
100 Imported hemp rope appears in England. 
105 Legend suggests that Ts'ai Lun invents hemp paper in China, 200 years after its actual appearance (see 100 BCE above). 
130-200 Greek physician Galen prescribes medical marijuana. 
200 First pharmacopoeia of the East lists medical marijuana. Chinese surgeon Hua T'o uses marijuana as an anesthetic. 
300 A young woman in Jerusalem receives medical marijuana during childbirth. 
570 The French queen Arnegunde is buried with hemp cloth. 
500-600 The Jewish Talmud mentions the euphoriant properties of Cannabis. 
850 Vikings take hemp rope and seeds to Iceland. 
900 Arabs learn techniques for making hemp paper. 
900-1000 Scholars debate the pros and cons of eating hashish. Use spreads throughout Arabia. 
1000 Hemp ropes appear on Italian ships. Arabic physician Ibn Wahshiyah's On Poisons warns of marijuana's potential dangers. 
1090-1124 In Khorasan, Persia, Hasan ibn al-Sabbah, recruits followers to commit assassinations...legends develop around their supposed use of hashish. These legends are some of the earliest written tales of the discovery of the inebriating powers of Cannabis and the use of Hashish by a paramilitary organization as a hypnotic (see U.S. military use, 1942 below). Early 12th Century Hashish smoking becomes very popular throughout the Middle East. 
1155-1221 Persian legend of the Sufi master Sheik Haydar's personal discovery of Cannabis and his own alleged invention of hashish with it's subsequent spread to Iraq, Bahrain, Egypt and Syria. Another of the ealiest written narratives of the use of Cannabis as an inebriant. 
1171-1341 During the Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt, Cannabis is introduced by mystic devotees from Syria.
1200 1,001 Nights, an Arabian collection of tales, describes hashish's intoxicating and aphrodisiac properties. 
13th Century The oldest monograph on hashish, Zahr al-'arish fi tahrim al-hashish, was written. It has since been lost. Ibn al-Baytar of Spain provides a description of the psychoactive nature of Cannabis. Arab traders bring Cannabis to the Mozambique coast of Africa.
1271-1295 Journeys of Marco Polo in which he gives second-hand reports of the story of Hasan ibn al-Sabbah and his "assassins" using hashish. First time reports of Cannabis have been brought to the attention of Europe. 
1300 Ethiopian pipes containing marijuana suggest the herb has spread from Egypt to the rest of Africa. 
1378 Ottoman Emir Soudoun Scheikhouni issues one of the first edicts against the eating of hashish. 
1526 Babur Nama, first emperor and founder of Mughal Empire learned of hashish in Afghanistan. 
1532 French physician Rabelais's gargantua and Pantagruel mentions marijuana's medicinal effects. 
1533 King Henry VIII fines farmers if they do not raise hemp for industrial use. 
1549 Angolan slaves brought cannabis with them to the sugar plantations of northeastern Brazil. They were permitted to plant their cannabis between rows of cane, and to smoke it between harvests. 
c. 1550 The epic poem, Benk u Bode, by the poet Mohammed Ebn Soleiman Foruli of Baghdad, deals allegorically with a dialectical battle between wine and hashish. 
1563 Portuguese physician Garcia da Orta reports on marijuana's medicinal effects. 
1578 China's Li Shih-Chen writes of the antibiotic and antiemetic effects of marijuana. 
1600 England begins to import hemp from Russia. 
1606-1632 French and British cultivate Cannabis for hemp at their colonies in Port Royal (1606), Virginia (1611), and Plymouth (1632).
1616 Jamestown settlers began growing the hemp plant for its unusually strong fiber and used it to make rope, sails, and clothing. 
1621 Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy suggests marijuana may treat depression. 
1600-1700 Use of hashish, alcohol, and opium spreads among the population of occupied Constantinople. Hashish becomes a major trade item between Central Asia and South Asia. 
1753 Linnaeus classifies Cannabis sativa
1764 Medical marijuana appears in The New England Dispensatory
1776 Kentucky begins growing hemp. 
1794 Medical marijuana appears in The Edinburgh New Dispensary
1798 Napoleon discovers that much of the Egyptian lower class habitually uses hashish. Soldiers returning to France bring the tradition with them, and he declares a total prohibition.
1800- Marijuana plantations flourished in Mississippi, Georgia, California, South Carolina, Nebraska, New York, and Kentucky. Also during this period, smoking hashish was popular throughout France and to a lesser degree in the US. Hashish production expands from Russian Turkestan into Yarkand in Chinese Turkestan.  
1809 Antoine Sylvestre de Sacy, a leading Arabist, suggests a base etymology between the words "assassin" and "hashishin" -- subsequent linguest study disproves his theory. 
1840 In America, medicinal preparations with a Cannabis base are available. Hashish is available in Persian pharmacies. 
1842 Irish physician O'Shaughnessy publishes cannabis research in English medical journals.
1843 French author Gautier publishes The Hashish Club
1846 French physician Moreau publishes Hashish and Mental Illness 
1850 Cannabis is added to The U.S. Pharmacopoeia
1850-1915 Marijuana was widely used throughout United States as a medicinal drug and could easily be purchased in pharmacies and general stores. 
1854 Whittier writes the first American work to mention cannabis as an intoxicant. 
1856 British tax "ganja" and "charas" trade in India. 
1857 American writer Ludlow publishes The Hasheesh Eater
1858 French poet Baudelaire publishes On the Artificial Ideal
1870-1880 First reports of hashish smoking on the Greek mainland.
1890 Greek Department of Interior prohibits importance, cultivation and use of hashish. Hashish is made illegal in Turkey. Sir J.R. Reynolds, chief physician to Queen Victoria, prescribes medical marijuana to her.
1893-1894 The India Hemp Drugs Commission Report is issued. 70,000 to 80,000 kg per year of hashish is legally imported into India from Central Asia. 
1906 In the U.S. the Pure Food and Drug Act is passed, regulating the labeling of products containing Alcohol, Opiates, Cocaine, and Cannabis, among others. 
Early 20th Century Hashish smoking remains very popular throughout the Middle East. 
1910 The Mexican Revolution caused an influx of Mexican immigrants who introduced the habit of recreational use (instead of it's generally medicinal use) into American society.
1914 The Harrison Act in the U.S. defined use of Marijuana (among other drugs) as a crime. 
1916 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) chief scientists Jason L. Merrill and Lyster H. Dewey created paper made from hemp pulp, which they concluded was "favorable in comparison with those used with pulp wood" in USDA Bulletin No. 404. From the book"The Emperor Wears No Clothes" by Jack Herer the USDA Bulletin N. 404 reported that one acre of hemp, in annual rotation over a 20-year period, would produce as much pulp for paper as 4.1 acres (17,000 m2) of trees being cut down over the same 20-year period. This process would use only 1/7 to 1/4 as much polluting sulfur-based acid chemicals to break down the glue-like lignin that binds the fibers of the pulp, or even none at all using soda ash. The problem of dioxin contamination of rivers is avoided in the hemp paper making process, which does not need to use chlorine bleach (as the wood pulp paper making process requires) but instead safely substitutes hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching process. ... If the new (1916) hemp pulp paper process were legal today, it would soon replace about 70% of all wood pulp paper, including computer printout paper, corrugated boxes and paper bags. However, mass production of cheap news print from hemp had not developed in any country, and hemp was a relatively easy target because factories already had made large investments in equipment to handle cotton, wool, and linen, but there were relatively small investments in hemp production.
1915-1927 In the U.S. cannabis begins to be prohibited for nonmedical use. Prohibition first begins in California (1915), followed by Texas (1919), Louisiana (1924), and New York (1927).
1919 The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol and positioned marijuana as an attractive alternative leading to an increase in use of the substance. 
1920s Greek dictator Ioannis Metaxas cracks down on hashish smoking. Hashish smuggled into Egypt from Greece, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, and Central Asia.
1924 Russian botanists classify another major strain of the plant, Cannabis ruderalis
1926 Lebanese hashish production is prohibited. 
1928 Recreational use of Cannabis is banned in Britain. 
1930 The Yarkand region of Chinese Turkestan exports 91,471 kg of hashish legally into the Northwest Frontier and Punjab regions of India. Legal taxed imports of hashish continue into India from Central Asia. 
1933 The U.S. congress repealed the 21st Amendment, ending alcohol prohibition; 4 years later the prohibition of marijuana will be in full effect.
1934-1935 Chinese government moves to end all Cannabis cultivation in Yarkand and charas traffic from Yarkand. Hashish production become illegal in Chinese Turkestan. 
1936 The American propaganda film Reefer Madness was made to scare American youth away from using Cannabis. 



DrugSense Drug War ClockCurrent TimeFederal SpentState/Local SpentTotal SpentAll Drug ArrestsCannabis ArrestsImprisoned
American Dollars Spent, and American Citizens Arrested, Because of the Dubious "War On Drugs" THIS Year Alone ...
1937 U.S. Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act which criminalized the drug. In response Dr. William C. Woodward, testifying on behalf of the AMA, told Congress that, "The American Medical Association knows of no evidence that marijuana is a dangerous drug" and warned that a prohibition "loses sight of the fact that future investigation may show that there are substantial medical uses for Cannabis." His comments were ignored by Congress. A part of the testimony for Congress to pass the 1937 act derived from articles in newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst, who had significant financial interests in the timber industry, which manufactured his newsprint paper. 
1938 Supply of hashish from Chinese Turkestan nearly ceases. The U.S. company DuPont patented the processes for creating plastics from coal and oil and a new process for creating paper from wood pulp.
1940s Greek hashish smoking tradition fades. 
1941 Cannabis is removed from the U.S. Pharmacopoeia and it's medicinal use is no longer recognized in America. The same year the Indian government considers cultivation in Kashmir to fill void of hashish from Chinese Turkestan. Hand-rubbed charas from Nepal is choicest hashish in India during World War II.
1942 U.S. scientists working at the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the CIA’s wartime predecessor, began to develop a chemical substance that could break down the psychological defenses of enemy spies and POWs. After testing several compounds, the OSS scientists selected a potent extract of marijuana as the best available "truth serum." The cannabis concoction was given the code name TD, meaning Truth Drug. When injected into food or tobacco cigarettes, TD helped loosen the reserve of recalcitrant interrogation subjects.
1945 Legal hashish consumption continues in India. Hashish use in Greece flourishes again.
1951 The Boggs Act and the Narcotics Control Act in the U.S. increases all drug penalties and laid down mandatory sentences.
1960 Czech researchers confirm the antibiotic and analgesic effects of cannabis. 
1963 Turkish police seize 2.5 tons of hashish.1965 First reports of the strain Cannibis afghanica and was used for hashish production in northern Afghanistan. 
1967 "Smash", the first hashish oil appears. Red Lebanese reaches California. 
1970-1972 Huge fields of Cannabis are cultivated for hashish production in Afghanistan. Afghani hashish varieties introduced to North America for sinsemilla production. Westerners bring metal sieve cloths to Afghanistan. Law enforcement efforts against hashish begin in Afghanistan.
1970 The US National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) forms. That same year the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act repealed mandatory penalties for drug offenses and marijuana was categorized separately from other narcotics. 
1971 First evidence suggesting marijuana may help glaucoma patients.
1972 The Nixon-appointed Shafer Commission urged use of cannabis be re-legalized, but their recommendation was ignored. U.S. Medical research picks up pace. Proposition 19 in California to legalize marijuana use is rejected by a voter margin of 66-33%.
1973 Nepal bans the Cannabis shops and charas (hand-rolled hash) export. Afghan government makes hashish production and sales illegal. Afghani harvest is pitifully small. 
1975 Nabilone, a cannabinoid-based medication appears. 
1976 The U.S. federal government created the Investigational New Drug (IND) Compassionate Use research program to allow patients to receive up to nine pounds of cannabis from the government each year. Today, five surviving patients still receive medical cannabis from the federal government, paid for by federal tax dollars. At the same time the U.S. FDA continues to list marijuana as Schedule I meaning: "A high potential for abuse with no accepted medical value." 
1977 Carl Sagan proposes that marijuana may have been the world's first agricultural crop, leading to the development of civilization itself:"It would be wryly interesting if in human history the cultivation of marijuana led generally to the invention of agriculture, and thereby to civilization." Carl Sagan, The Dragons of Eden, Speculations on the Origin of Human Intelligence p 191 footnote.
1977-1981 U.S. President Carter, including his assistant for drug policy, Dr. Peter Bourne, pushed for decriminalization of marijuana, with the president himself asking Congress to abolish federal criminal penalties for those caught with less than one ounce of marijuana. 
1980s Morocco becomes one of, if not the largest, hashish producing and exporting nations. "Border hashish" is produced in northwestern Pakistan along the Afghan border to avoid Soviet-Afghan war. 
1985 Hashish is still produced by Muslims of Kashgar and Yarkland in Northwest China. In the U.S. the FDA approves dronabinol, a synthetic THC, for cancer patients. 
1986 President Reagan signed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, reinstating mandatory minimums and raising federal penalties for possession and distribution and officially begins the U.S. international "war on drugs." 
1987 Moroccan government cracks down upon Cannabis cultivation in lower elevations of the Rif Mountains. 
1988 U.S. DEA administrative law Judge Francis Young finds, after thorough hearings, that marijuana has a clearly established medical use and should be reclassified as a prescriptive drug. His recommendation is ignored. 
1992 In reaction to a surge of requests from AIDS patients for medical marijuana, the U.S. government closes the Compassionate Use program. That same year the pharmaceutical medication dronabinol is approved for AIDS-wasting syndrome. 
1993 Cannabis eradication efforts resume in Morocco. 
1994 Border hashish still produced in Pakistan. Heavy fighting between rival Muslim clans continues to upset hashish trade in Afghanistan.
1995 Introduction of hashish-making equipment and appearance of locally produced hashish in Amsterdam coffee shops.
1996 California (the first U.S. state to ban marijuana use, see 1915) became the first U.S. State to then re-legalize medical marijuana use for people suffering from AIDS, cancer, and other serious illnesses. A similar bill was passed in Arizona the same year. This was followed by the passage of similar initiatives in Alaska, Colorado, Maine, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Washington D.C., Hawaii, Maryland, New Mexico, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
1997 The American Office of National Drug Control Policy commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a comprehensive study of the medical efficacy of cannabis therapeutics. The IOM concluded that cannabis is a safe and effective medicine, patients should have access, and the government should expand avenues for research and drug development. The federal government completely ignored its findings and refused to act on its recommendations. 
1997-2001 In direct contradiction to the IOM recomendations, President Clinton, continuing the Regan and Bush "war on drugs" era, began a campaign to arrest and prosecute medical cannabis patients and their providers in California and elsewhere.
1999 Hawaii and North Dakota unsuccessfully attempt to legalize hemp farming. The U.S. DEA reclassifies dronabinol as a schedule III drug, making the medication easier to prescribe while marijuana itself continues to be listed Schedule I as having "no accepted medical use."
2000 Legalization initiative in Alaska fails.
2001 Britain's Home Secretary, David Blunkett, proposes relaxing the classification of cannabis from a class B to class C. Canada adopts federal laws in support of medical marijuana, and by 2003 Canada becomes the first country in the world to approve medical marijuana nation-wide. 

2001-2009 Under President G.W. Bush the U.S. federal government intensified its "war on drugs" targeting both patients and doctors across the state of California.
2005 Marc Emery, a Canadian citizen and the largest distributor of marijuana seeds into the United States from approximately 1995 through July 2005 was on the FBI #1 wanted drug list for years and was eventually indicted by the U.S. DEA. He was extradited from Canada for trial in the U.S. in May 2010. 
2009 President Obama made steps toward ending the very unsuccessful 20-year "war on drugs" initiated during the Regan administration by stating that individual drug use is really a public health issue, and should be treated as such. Under his guidance, the U.S. Justice Department announced that federal prosecutors will no longer pursue medical marijuana users and distributors who comply with state laws.
2010 Marc Emery of Vancouver, BC, Canada, was sentenced on September 10 in a U.S. District Court in Seattle to five years in prison and four years of supervised release for "conspiracy to manufacture marijuana" (eg. selling marijuana seeds).
2010 Proposition 19 to legalize marijuana in California is placed back on the ballet (named The Regulate, Control and Tax Cannabis Act of 2010). Current voter poles suggest that the proposition has about 50% population support and will likely win or loose by a margin of only 2%.
Oct 2010 Just weeks before the November 02 California election on Prop. 19 Attorney General Eric Holder said federal authorities would continue to enforce U.S. laws that declare the drug is illegal, even if voters approve the initiative, stating "we will vigorously enforce the (Controlled Substances Act) against those individuals and organizations that possess, manufacture or distribute marijuana for recreational use."Nov 2010 California Proposition 19, also known as the Regulate, Control and Tax Cannabis Act of 2010, was narrowly defeated by 53.6% of the vote. This would have legalized various marijuana-related activities in California, allowing local governments to regulate these activities, permitting local governments to impose and collect marijuana-related fees and taxes, and authorizing various criminal and civil penalties. 
Nov 2012 The States of Colorado and Washington legalize marijuana / cannabis for recreational use; promises are made to the people that these new initiatives will have no impact on medical marijuana in those states. The country of Uruguay legalizes marijuana / cannabis for recreational use. The US District of Columbia decriminalizes personal use and possession of marijuana / cannabis. 
July 07, 2014 Cannabis City becomes Seattle's very first legal marijuana shop for over-the-counter purchase & recreational use. This generated world-wide media attention and a serious discussion over the legalization of marijuana and a possible end to the American "drug war." The first purchase, by Deb Green a 65-year old marathon-running grandmother from Ballard, is part of the collection of the Museum of History and Industry in Seattle, Washington. 
Nov 2014 The States of Alaska and Oregon legalize marijuana / cannabis for recreational use; the States of California, Nevada, Arizona, Hawaii and Massachusetts all begin to draft legalization legislation. 
July 24, 2015 With the passage of Senate Bill 5052 Washington State medical marijuana comes fully under the control of the newly re-named Washington Liquor and Cannabis Board (LCB). Originally posted here: http://www.advancedholistichealth.org/history.html

Adapted from the following sources:
Understanding Marijuana, a New Look at the Scientific Evidence by Mitch Earleywine
The Emperor Wears No Clothes by Jack Herer
www.scientificamerican.com
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_cannabis
www.concept420.com
www.time.com
www.safeaccassnow.org
www.pharmacytechs.net/blog
www.skunked.co.uk/articles
www.druglibrary.org
www.justice.gov/dea
www.cannabiscity.us
 
 
See for yourself what the Bible says. The WWW Bible Gateway has concordances for the King James, the American Standard and four or five other translations. It's easy to do word or verse searches. Originally posted: http://www.equalrights4all.org/religious/bible.htm

Marijuana & the Bible, And I will raise up for them a plant of renown, and they shall be no more consumed with hunger in the land, neither bear the shame of the heathen any more. -- Ezekiel 34:29"The Lord said unto me, 'I will take my rest and I will consider in my dwelling place like a clear heat upon herbs.' " -- Isaiah 18:4-5Jesus • Medical Marijuana • Relevant Quotes"Lord, when did we see thee sick or in prison and came unto thee?" And the King will answer and say unto them, "Verily I say unto you, inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethern, ye have done it unto me." -- Matthew 25:39-40Go forth, and visit a prisoner today. http://www.hr95.orgWhat is the Word of God on the Cannabis plant?The hemp plant (scientific name: cannabis, slang: marijuana) is one of the many useful herbs "yielding seed after its kind" created and blessed by God on the third day of creation, "and God saw that it was good." (Genesis 1:12) He gave hemp for people to use with our free will.

God said, "Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed which is upon the face of all the earth.…To you it will be for meat." … And God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. (Genesis 1:29-31) The Bible predicts some herb's prohibition. "Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times, some shall … speak lies in hypocrisy … commanding to abstain from meats which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth. (Paul: 1 Timothy 4:1-3)

The Bible speaks of a special plant. "I will raise up for them a plant of renown, and they shall be no more consumed with hunger in the land, neither bear the shame of the heathen any more." (Ezekiel 34:29) A healing plant. On either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare 12 manner of fruits, and yielding her fruit every month; and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. (Revelations 22:1-2) A gift from God.

How was cannabis used in Biblical times and lands?Cannabis was used 12 ways: clothing, paper, cord, sails, fishnet, oil, sealant, incense, food, and in ceremony, relaxation and medicine. For so the Lord said unto me, "I will take my rest and I will consider in my dwelling place like a clear heat upon herbs. For afore harvest, when the bud is perfect and the sour grape is ripening in the flower, he shall cut off the sprigs with pruning hooks and take away and cut down the branches." (Isaiah 18:4-5)

What about cannabis today?Hemp today has thousands of uses. Modern technology has devised many new uses for the hemp plant&emdash;like biomass energy, building materials, fuel, plastic and so on. Hemp is ecological and its seed is among the best food crops on Earth. Selected varieties produce flowers that provide an herbal relaxant and a spiritual tool. Its herb is used globally as medicine.

Does the Bible discuss drugs?Alcohol is the only drug openly discussed in the Bible, so it must serve as our reference. Wine is drunk during religious occasions such as Passover &emdash; the Last Supper of Jesus and His disciples. It remains a sacrament in modern church services.

Jesus began his public life by miraculously turning water into wine at the Wedding at Cana (John 2:1-10) when the reception ran out. The Bible distinguishes between use and misuse. It says, Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish and wine unto those that be of heavy hearts. (Proverbs 31:6-7) but Woe unto them that … follow strong drink; that continue until night, till wine inflame them! (Isaiah 5:10)

Yet the simple joys of drinking were also sung. He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle, and herb for the service of man: that he may bring forth food out of the earth; And wine that maketh glad the heart of man and oil to make his face to shineth. (Psalm 104:14-15)

Did Jesus speak about choice?He said not to criticize other people for their habits. "Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; that which cometh out of the mouth defileth a man." (Mat. 15:11) The apostle Paul wrote, I know, and am persuaded by the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing unclean of itself: but to him that esteemeth anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. … For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost. (Paul: Romans 14:14,17)

Did He speak of government?Jesus said to keep church and state apart. "Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's and unto God the things which be God's." (Luke 20:25) As we have seen, it was God, not government, who gave man the herbs to use. And it was government that put Jesus to death.

Property forfeiture laws?He warned us about seizure and forfeiture laws. "Beware of the scribes which …devour widows' houses…. The same shall receive greater damnation." (Luke 20:46-47) Jesus, too, was a victim. The soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part. (John. 19:33)

What about the Drug War?Blessed are the peacemakers. (Matthew 5:9)

It was God who created cannabis hemp and told mankind to use "every green herb" on Earth. The Bible speaks of mercy, healing and a persecution of God's children. They persecute me wrongfully; help thou me. (Psalms 119:86) Prisons and drug wars do not save souls. The Lord… hath sent me to bind up the broken hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives and the opening of the prison to them that are bound. (Isaiah 61:1)

What should the ministry do?Teach God's truth. Warn your congregation that the war on marijuana is unchristian and must be ended. My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge; because you have rejected knowledge, I will also reject you, that you will be no priest to Me … for I desired mercy and not sacrifice. (Hosea 4:6, 6:6)

Remember: Every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused if it be received with thanksgiving…. If thou put the brethren in remembrance of these things, thou shalt be a good minister of Jesus Christ, nourished up in the words of faith and of good doctrine. (Paul: 1 Timothy 4:4-6)

Summary analysis of the foregoing discussionWhat does the Bible say about marijuana? The Bible says that God created hemp for people to use "as meat," (ie, to consume), that its seed oil is to be used as an ointment, and that cannabis is "to be received with thanks-giving of them which believe and know the truth." Paul also warned that some people would "speak lies in hypocrisy" and prohibit us from using it.

It also says that we "shall not bear false witness" about people who use cannabis, nor judge them because that judgement is reserved to the Lord. The Lord hates those who speak lies and sow discord among brethern. For those people harrassed and imprisoned for using cannabis rightfuly, Jesus offers these words of comfort, "Blessed are those persecuted for righteousness's sake: For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven."

What would Jesus do regarding medical marijuana?Despite common knowledge and widespread scientific support, the federal government has for nearly 30 years kept cannabis in schedule 1 as a deliberate way to deny patients access to medical marijuana. This includes people suffering from asthma, cancer, migraine headache, chronic pain, spasticity, glaucoma, arthritis, and provides relief for many other conditions. As a result, people at various locations across the USA have had to risk and suffer years in prison for providing medical marijuana to patients as an act of compassion and personal conscience. What would Jesus do? He chose to break the law in order to heal the sick.

"At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn, and his disciples were hungered, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat. 2) But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath day 3) But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was hungered, and they that were with him? … 10) And, behold, there was a man which had his hand withered, And they asked him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days? that they might accuse him. 11) And he said unto them, What man shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it and lift it out? 12) How much then is a man better than a sheep? Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the sabbath days. 13) Then saith he to the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored whole, like as the other. 14) Then the Pharisees went out, and held a council against him, how they might destroy him. 15) But when Jesus knew it, he withdrew himself from thence, and great multitudes followed him, and he healed them all; 16) And charged them that they should not make him known." (Matthew 12: 1-2, 10-16) (also see Mark 3, Luke 13, John 9)

Should people give blind obedience to government?Then came to Jesus scribes and Pharisees, which were of Jerusalem, saying, 2) Why do thy disciple transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread." 3) But he answered and said unto them, Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God by your tradition? … 7) Ye hypocrites! … 12) Then came his disciples, and said unto him, Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended, after they heard this saying? 13) But he answered and said, Every plant, which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up. 14) Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind, And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch. (Matthew 15:1-3, 7, 12-14)

Passages from the King James Bible that are relevant
to the legal and moral status of Cannabis sativa, L.And the earth brought forth grass and herb yielding seed after its kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. (Genesis 1:12)

God said, "Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so." And God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. (Gen. 1:29-31)

(No prohibition of cannabis or any other drug is made in the Ten Commandments: See Ex. 20:1-17)

(Cannabis is mentioned in Ex. 30:23 but King James mistranslated it as 'sweet calamus') :
Moreover, the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 23 Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even 250 shekels, and of qaneh-bosm [cannabis] 250 shekels, 24 And of cassia 500 shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil olive an hin: 25 And thou shalt make it an oil of holy anointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil. 26 And thous shalt anoint the tabernacle of the congregation therewith, and the ark of the testimony, 27 And the table and all his vessels, and the candlestick ahd his vessels, and the altar of incense, 28 And the altar of burnt offerings with all his vessels, and the laver and his foot. 29 And thou shalt sanctify them, that they may be most holy: whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy. (Exodus 30:22-29)

* As one shekel equals approximately 16.37 grams, this means that the THC from over 9 pounds of flowering cannabis tops were extracted into a hind, about 6.5 litres of oil. The entheogenic effects of such a solution -- even when applied topically -would undoubtedly have been intense.He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle and herb for the service of man: that he may bring forth food out of the earth; And wine that maketh glad the heart of man and oil to make his face to shineth. (Psalm 104:14-15)

The Lord said unto me, "I will take my rest and I will consider in my dwelling place like a clear heat upon herbs, and like a cloud of dew in the heat of harvest. For afore the harvest, when the bud is perfect and the sour grape is ripening in the flower, he shall cut off the sprigs with pruning hooks and take away and cut down the branches. (Is. 18:4-5)

And I will raise up for them a plant of renown, and they shall be no more consumed with hunger in the land, neither bear the shame of the heathen any more. (Ezekiel 34:29)

(Jesus:) "Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man." (Matt. 15:11)

One believeth that he may eat all things. Another…eateth herbs. … Let us not, therefore judge one another any more: but judge this rather, that no man put a stumbling block or an occasion to fall in his brother's way. I know, and am persuaded by the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing unclean of itself: but to him that esteemeth anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Ghost. (Epistle of St. Paul: Romans 14: 2,3,13,14,17)

Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times, some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron; Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth. For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused if it be received with thanksgiving: For it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer. If thou put the brethren in remembrance of these things, thou shalt be a good minister of Jesus Christ, nourished up in the words of faith and of good doctrine, whereupon thou hast attained. (Paul: 1 Timothy 4:1-6)

And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielding her fruit every month; and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. (Rev. 22:1-2)

Other relevant quotes:Intoxication:Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging: and whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise. (Prov. 20:1)

Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish and wine unto those of heavy hearts. Let him drink and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more. (Prov. 31:6-7)

"Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; that continue until night, till wine inflame them! (Isaiah 5:10)

(Jesus' first miracle was turning water into wine at the wedding at Cana: See John 1-10. He also served wine at the Last Supper.)

Prohibition:(Jesus:) He said unto them, "Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's and unto God the things which be God's." (Luke 20:25)

"Then came Peter to him and said, "Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Till seven times? Jesus saith unto him, "I say not unto thee until seven times: But until seventy times seven." (Matt. 18:21-22)

(Jesus:) "If a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand." (Mark 3:24)

(Jesus:) He saith unto them, "Are ye so without understanding also? Do ye not perceive that whatsoever thing from without entereth into the man, it cannot defile him.... That which cometh out of the man, that defileth the man." (Mark 7:18-20)

Forfeiture:As troops of robbers wait for a man, so the company of priests commit murder in the way by consent. (Hos. 6:9)

(Jesus:) "Beware the scribes which desire to walk in long robes and … the highest seats in the synagogues and the chief rooms at feasts; Which devour widows' houses, and for a show make long prayers: They shall receive greater damnation." (Luke 20:46-47)

Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part. (John 19:23)

Persecution:Thy commandments are faithful: They persecute me wrongfully; help thou me. (Ps. 119:86)

(Jesus:) "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of God. Blessed are those persecuted for righteousness' sake: For theirs is the kingdom of heaven." (Matthew 5:9-10)

(Jesus:) "The King shall answer and say unto them, 'Verily I say unto you, inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethern, ye have done it unto me." (Matt. 25:40)

Tolerance:These six things doth the Lord hate: yea, seven are an abomination unto him: A proud look, a lying tongue and hands that shed innocent blood; An heart that deviseth wicked imaginations, feet that be swift in running to mischief; A false witness that speaketh lies, and he that soweth discord among brethern." (Prov. 6:16-19)

(Jesus:) "But I say unto you which hear, Love your enemies, do good to them which hate you, Bless them that curse you and pray for them which despitefully use you. And unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek, offer also the other, and him that taketh away thy cloak, forbid not to take thy coat also." (Luke 6:27-29)

Truth:A wise man will hear, and will increase learning: and a man of understanding shall attain unto wise counsels. (Proverbs 1:5)

If a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants are wicked. (Prov. 29:12)

Judgement & Punishment:The spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the broken hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives and the opening of the prison to them that are bound." (Is. 61:1)

My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge; because you have rejected knowledge, I will also reject you, that you will be no priest to Me…for I desired mercy and not sacrifice. (Hosea 4:6, 6:6)

(Jesus:) "Judge not, that ye be not judged. For with what judgement ye judge, ye shall be judged: And with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again. And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?" (Matt. 7:1-4)

(Jesus:) He beheld them and said, "What is this then that is written, 'The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner'?" (Luke 20:17)

Religion / Coptic Christians / Cantheism